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I Plemena verchnego i srednego Podneprovja v epochu bronzy. Odontologiniai duomenys. Paleolithic Colonisation. In: Amer. In: Huntley, B. Webb, T. Vegetation History. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Behrens, H. Halle, S Lietuvos archeologija 23, Butrimas, A Spigino mezolito kapai. Archeologiniai tyrimai.

R Human dental reduction: Natural selection or or the probable mutation effect. Princeton University Press. Childe, V. G Prehistoric migrations in Europe. Oslo: Aschelong. Antropologiniai tyrimai. An Inventory of recent and old craniological materials from univariate viewpoint. Multivariate approach. An essay on the genesis of craniological types. In: Homo 42, Daugnora, L. Vilnius: Savastis. Denisova, R. Ja Antropologija drevnich baltov. Riga: Zinatne. Dolukhanov, P.

Gimbutas, M The Kurgan wave migrations B. In: Jones-Bley K. The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe. In: Gochman I. Leningrad: Nauka. L Uralic Genes in Europe. R Cranial measurements do not support Neolithization of Europe by demic expansion. In: Homo 40, Harris, M.

New York e. Jacobs, K Human population differentiation in the peri-baltic Mesolithic: the odontometrics of Oleneostrovskii mogilnik Karelia. In: Human Evolution 7, Krainov, D. S Fatjanovskaja kul tura. In: Julku, K. Turku, Latynin, B. Lell, J. In: Trudy in-ta etnografii im. Miklucho-Maklaja 32, Martin, R. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. O Shea J. Wroclaw etc. Petersen, H.

C A discrimination analysis approach to morphological regionalization in the European Late Mesolithic. In: Anthrop. In: Antiquity 75, Ramsey, C. Commentary on Lithuanian Stone Age grave dates by I. Antanaitis and K. In: Archaeometry 42 1 , Regnell, M. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. Richards, M. In: Lietuvos archeologija 23, Vilnius, 19 Rootsi, S. Tartu, Rosser, Z. Katalog k vystave. Zvelebil, M Indo-European origins and the agricultural transition in Europe.

In: Kuna, M. Whither archaeology? In: Zvelebil M. Harvesting the Sea, Farming the Forest. The emergence of Neolithic Societies in the Baltic Region. Key words: vehicle tracks, long-barrows, megalithic graves, Funnel Beaker Culture, wheeled transportation. At least 19 out of about 80 located prehistoric sites could be identified as megalithic graves of Funnel Beaker Culture.

They belong to a micro-region of less than 12 square kilometres Fig. Unfortunately, all megalithic graves in Flintbek were in very bad condition, since they were destroyed during the 19th century. Therefore, their documentation derived mainly from subterraneous traces. On this premise, it was necessary to excavate them completely, which is quite uncommon in the archaeology of megaliths.

This method resulted in new ideas on the grave building and burial rites of a megalithic community. Six of the Flintbek sites turned out to be remains of long-barrows 2. Special attention is drawn to long-barrow LA 3 Fig. Its excavation provided excellent information on the gradual growth of a megalithic monument, because more than half a metre of the raised mound had been preserved. In this case, there were better chances to place profiles in line with the monument.

The discovery that megalithic and contemporaneous non-megalithic graves coexisted in one and the same long-barrow 3 is of great importance. Two more burials in the upper layers had been destroyed by agriculture. Besides the graves, some traces of settlement contexts were discovered.

Among several ard-marks, a posthole and three fireplaces, traces were found which were eventually interpreted as vehicle tracks. Northeast of chamber IV, standing out against the glacial soil and covered by the long-barrow mound, we discovered two dark traces, They ran completely parallel, forming a slight curve Fig. The average distance between them measured 1. West of the traces a single six-metrelong track, only 0. Its profile was roundish-rectangular.

The same width was found in the middle section of the large eastern track. Here the soil changed to sandy ground and for that reason the tracks ran into single grooves, which were also roundish-rectangular in profile. Furthermore, the profiles of the two main traces showed that the transitional soil to the glacial surface was hard and compressed and in some places covered with grey, washed-out sand Fig.

Based on these indications, we concluded that the tracks in Flintbek had been caused by a wheeled vehicle. In our opinion, only a rolling movement can produce such traces. The grey washed-out sand in the grooves indicates that rain had rinsed some earthen material into the tracks.

This interpretation is closely linked to the results of the long-barrow s gradual extension Fig. Certain stratigrafical evidence suggests the following sequence. Its most significant feature is the use of wooden components Madsen , ff. Its inner floor was covered by a stone pavement.

Outside, the wooden construction had been propped up by small supporting stones. The grave contained a thin-butted flint-axe and five transverse arrowheads. The edge of an oval-shaped mound was to be seen, which had been partly raised from the dug-out soil of two adjacent ditches to its left and right Fig.

Map of the tumulus cemetery Fig. To point out the chronological sequence of grave A and B it is important that the dug-out yellow glacial soil from the neighbouring posthole of grave B was lying at the foot of the mound of grave A. This observation was also made in the schematic view, where the soil material belonging to grave B enclosed the already existing mound Fig.

Another important hint concerning the dating was that on the edge of the tumulus fragments of a late early Neolithic lugged flask were found. The grave itself contained another thinbutted flint-axe. In a third phase the barrow was extended to cover grave C and D Figs. No remains of the coffin were preserved, but in grave D the silhouette of the buried individual was visible. The grave goods, including a thin-butted flint-axe and eight transverse arrowheads Fig.

Some useful information concerning the relative-chronological age of the third phase was that the Neolithic surface had been widely removed. This could only have happened in conjunction with the already existing two phases of the barrow. Stratigraphical evidence arose from a profile, which clearly showed that the soil material covering grave C superposed the foot of the neighbouring mound belonging to grave A. Another profile across the third phase of the barrow proved that tree-coffin grave D was younger than grave C.

The condition of the soil material showed a trunk dug into this part of the mound. Flintbek, long-barrow LA 3, grave goods from grave D the length of the thin-butted axe is 17 cm of burnt flint instead of a stone pavement inside the burial chamber. Its relative-chronological age was obvious by the fact that in connection with one of its postholes the dugout glacial soil could be localised at the foot of the existing mound.

Within the grave a thin-butted flint-axe and five transverse arrowheads were found. Up to the fifth phase, all burials of long-barrow LA 3 were situated parallel with the barrow. In phase V the first megalithic chambers were built, and the orientation changed to a transverse position. Extended dolmen chambers I and II were covered by the same kind of soil Figs. The barrow s fifth phase was lined by packedup stones of non-megalithic size.

Chronological evidence arose from the fact that the stone line partly overlapped the mound of grave B Fig. Chamber I revealed some details concerning construction. At first a foundation trench was dug 0. On its perimeter six orthostates kerbstones were placed and supported as required with small stones at their base.

Gaps between the pillar-stones were filled in with drywalling, and from the outside the chamber was covered by a layer of clay, as concluded from a remaining 0. The inner floor was almost trough-shaped, with a burnt layer on the topsoil and covered by a stone pavement with a coating of fired flint. As the stones of the pavement did not show any effects of heat, the firing must have been done from outside the chamber.

Grave F had been dug into the mound of phase V Figs. For this reason it is obvious that it is younger than dolmens I and II. It contained an ordinary case-shaped wooden coffin and was found between grave B and chamber I. Traces of mouldered wood could be identified especially at the bottom. The Funnel Beaker Culture context is given by another thin-butted flint-axe. However, its age in relation to the following graves is rather uncertain. Extended dolmen is to be seen in connection with phase VI Figs.

A profile of the destroyed structure showed that its foundation trench hardly reached the glacial soil, which was only possible because it was dug into an already existing mound. This assumption became clearer with another profile of the chamber. A sixth phase of the mound was recognised, which was larger than phase V. It was surrounded by kerbstones, as proven by several traces in the ground.

Phase VII of the barrow is represented by an enlargement, which now for the first time grew into its width Figs. It was constructed in connection with chamber IV Fig. The edges were enclosed by large stones, and with this last phase the barrow acquired a total size of 54 by 18 metres. A lugged flask Fig.

Flintbek, long-barrow LA 3. Line of stones phase V; see left overlapping the mound of grave B see foreground , viewed from SW Fig. Chamber IV gave further important information. It was built in an unusually large foundation trench which moreover penetrated a natural clay bed in the subsoil. With a size of 16 square metres and a depth of 0. Finally, we would like to point out that Flintbek long-barrow LA 3 was built up in seven different phases. The observations concerning the Flintbek long-barrow s final seventh phase are closely related to the interpretation of the vehicle tracks.

As no traces of clay and dug-out material from chamber IV s unusually large foundation trench were found on the site, the material must have been removed, probably by a cartlike vehicle Zich whose wheels caused the traces mentioned above.

This idea was supported by the evidence that single tracks were 0. Because of the large amount of removed soil, we can easily imagine that the vehicle was in use several times, causing Fahrgeleise. Their preservation on the surface of the glacial soil was promoted by the fact of the long-barrow s growth, because in connection with phases I to VI, most of the Neolithic ground had already been dug off to built up the mound.

So the tracks were well preserved, standing out against the yellow to light brown sterile glacial soil. Their immediate relation with the building of dolmen-chamber IV is proven by the fact that the traces only ran to the northeast edge of the foundation trench. On the dolmen chamber s opposite side no traces were found, although here the conditions for preservation were almost the same. For this reason, we suggest that the vehicle tracks are directly linked to the building of chamber IV.

Lugged flask height 19 cm from chamber IV, dating the vehicle tracks berg phase of the northern Funnel Beaker Culture, dating with its climax stage to circa to BC Hoika , Table 1. Wheeled transportation 5 has been found in connection with Funnel Beaker Culture in northern and middle Europe. Furthermore, important evidence is given by the hoard from Bytyn in Poland, with its two harnessed oxen of copper Gandert 47 51, Plate 2; Pieczynski Also some wooden disc-wheels and Bohlenwege plank ways , mainly in Lower Saxony and Holland, dating from Funnel Beaker Culture, are known Hayen These examples give us an idea about vehicles in early Funnel Beaker Culture.

In this connection, some other findings, up to now only mentioned in passing, should be considered: the so-called Fahrgeleise. This German term has been used in research papers concerning old ways and roads Dehnecke They are known in great numbers, dating from post-medieval and maybe medieval times. Meanwhile, there is some information about Fahrgeleise of even older times: The first was excavated in , the rail-shaped traces from Helvesiek, Lower Saxony, lying close to a passage grave Dehnecke , Fig.

The traces under Flintbek longbarrow LA 3 were doubtless caused by a vehicle, and may be called Fahrgeleise. This can also be proved by comparing them to profiles of recent way or cart marks in the same area, which means in the same quality of soil; whereas it has clearly been shown by experiments that movements of sledges or simple timber trails do not cause comparable traces.

Notes 1 The excavations in Flintbek will be published as a monograph. The illustrations in this report can only give some examples of the documentation. In fact, many more profile-lines were cut into the soil to find out numerous details concerning stratigraphical relations. These detailed plans will be discussed in the main publication. Since the monograph will be printed in German, captions and legends differ from the language of the report.

The main aspect of the future publication will be the development of a micro-region from Neolithic to Bronze Age times. This report is dedicated to D. Stoltenberg ALSH , who was responsible for the technical leadership of the Flintbek excavations, in recognition of his excellent work. This, however, has been done in a very early state, discussing the excavation results. The published plans were only meant as a very schematic view to describe the main features of the monument, and may now be replaced by the more detailed ones see Fig.

Bakker, J. In: Fansa, M. Burmeister, St. Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Studier over Tragtbaegerkulturen i Danmark. In: Jankuhn, H. Wenskus, R. Zimmer, St. In: Jankowska, D. Neue Forschungen und Hypothesen 1. Rad und Wagen. NWDeutschland Nr. In: Fontes Archaeologici Posnaniensis 34, , 1 7. Piggott, S. From the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea Spennemann, D. Zich, B. Ein Vorbericht. Andersen, W. Bauch, K. Bokelmann, I. Clausen, A. Feiler-Kramer, S.

Hartz, J. Hoika, H. Saggau, C. Schirren, B. In: Aner, E. Willroth, K. Stoltenberg and L. Graphic design by H. Hammon and G. Kameros, kuriose buvo laidojami mirusieji, orientuotos jau skersai ilgojo pilkapio sampilo. Some more hoards may have been found, though. As most of the hoards were found before the Second World War, and the circumstances are rather ambiguous, the number of hoards is not clear either.

Some of the finds might have come from deteriorated burials, or artificially arranged collections of finds, rather than true hoards, due to which the number of hoards indicated by archaeological publications differs. The circumstances of the discovery of this hoard are even more obscure than in the case of the other hoards. Some scholars even doubt if it is a true hoard, as they suggest rather different dates for some of the finds LAB Puzinas is even more categorical.

He says that probably we are dealing with individual finds, and not a hoard Puzinas If this is a hoard, the important thing is to know how it turned up in northern Lithuania. The present article reviews a number of problems related to this hoard. Review of investigations The earliest known reference to this hoard can be found in Carl von Schmith s Necrolituanica, written in Drawings of finds from the hoard are presented on page 22, Fig.

This means that the hoard was found before , but we know almost nothing about the circumstances. It is most likely that the locality of Konstantinovo had already disappeared before the Second World War. Usually, they include a description of the composition of the hoard, its chronology and the place of storage.

A short description of the hoard, accompanied by a photograph of the finds, was published by Ebert. He also discusses the dating of finds in the hoard. He attributes the hoard to period IV, and claims that it comes from one single pot Nerman Ebert also claims that the hoard was found at Konstantinovo, Kr. The lower part of the socket displays five horizontal rollers. One roller stretches from the top of the socket to the beginning of the blade.

Two further rollers run from the bottom of the horizontal rollers to the beginning of the blade. The overall length of the axe is The length of the socket until the horizontal notches is 3. The blade is 5. The loop is 1. The overall length of the axe is 13 centimetres. The blade is slightly bent, ten centimetres long, 5. The width of the blade at the socket is 3. The thickness of the blade at the socket is 2. The external diameter of the socket is 4. The miniature dagger SHM is partly cleaned, and dark green in colour.

It has a flat pommel on the handle, a piece of which is broken. The overall length of the dagger is eight centimetres. The length of the blade is 5. The width of the blade at the handle is 1. The handle with the pommel is 2. Is it really a hoard? As mentioned above, archaeologists in the first half of the 20th century, as well as later authors who referred to them, claim that the hoard was found in one pot.

Nerman holds a similar opinion that all the artefacts mentioned above were found in one pot Nerman or in a clay pot Puzinas Lithuanian postwar archaeological literature also indicates that the hoard was found in a pot from the Neolithic period LAB , or that all the items were found in a clay pot LAA If we rely on the information from all the authors who are mentioned above, claiming that all the artefacts were found in one clay pot, the indisputable conclusion is that all three artefacts mentioned above come from one and the same hoard.

The question, however, arises as to the arguments for such statements. The authors mentioned probably refer to Montelius himself, who had received the information from von Schmith, who must have known the circumstances of the discovery of these artefacts. Some uncertainty exists only due to the fact that most archaeologists believe the shaft-hole axe to be much earlier than the other two finds. If that is true, we can also question whether the information that all the artefacts were found in a single pot is correct.

Miniature daggers seem not to have been manufactured in Lithuania. These artefacts are characteristic of Scandinavia, and present imitations of swords. Scholars have had especially many reservations regarding the dating of the shaft-hole axe and the circumstances of its appearance in Lithuania. With reference to Tallgren, Ebert dates the shaft-hole axe to the period from to BC Ebert 7. Luchtanas, , Fig. They are also known in the Srubnaya culture Klochko 58 , as well as other cultures of southeast, northeast Europe and the Caucasus, in the basins of the Dniester, Bug, Volga, Don and adjacent areas, and dated to the second millennium BC.

These axes disappeared at the end of the Bronze Age, and were already completely out of use during the Hallstatt period Klochko It is believed to have been discovered in a pot containing five copper idols of a human form, one small animal figurine, one plate terminating in animal heads, two daggers with handles of a snake-like form and with a small snake depicted on the handle, two small, flat, double-edged knife-daggers with backward-curved points, 11 round copper plates, one double spiral made of copper wire, three concave bracelets, small beads of copper, silver buttons, and silver beads, etc Gimbutas A very similar axe was found in the Nikopol hoard Fig.

Shaft-hole axes disappear at the beginning of the first millennium BC. This is an indirect verification of the authenticity of the hoard. As the artefacts of the hoard are not very remote from Fig. A miniature dagger from Gotland, according to O. Montelius, , Fig. A shafthole axe from the Nikopol hoard, according to H. The latter artefact became a symbol of this trade route.

Residents of central Scandinavia, who had a lot of good ships, were probably the most active players on this trade route. Hundreds of images of their ships carved on rocks are found in central Sweden Coles These travellers spread Scandinavian-type artefacts, such as axes, daggers and others, which were taken over and consequently even manufactured by other residents on the trade route.

The skills, customs and ideas spread as well. The shaft-hole axes, which were widespread in the northeast of Russia, were included into the exchange system of the route, though at the time when the trade route functioned the use of shaft-hole axes was coming to an end, due to which their distribution failed, and only a few examples of these artefacts are known. These artefacts belonged to an exceptional person, and were either hidden in the ground or sacrificed.

All the artefacts represent luxury articles of the period. In the Bronze Age an amber trade route existed between the eastern Baltic area and the middle Volga Fig. Besides amber, the route was used for the exchange of non-ferrous metals and manufactured articles. Contacts between the residents of various regions located close to this route were long-lasting and extensive.

Artefacts from different regions were traded on this route. At present, the hoard is kept at the State Historical Museum in Stockholm. The circumstances of the discovery of the hoard are not known, which raises the question, is it really a hoard? Nevertheless, our investigation leads us to the opinion that it is a hoard, whose artefacts were found in the same clay pot.

They were manufactured and widespread in Scandinavia, the east Baltic region and northeast Russia. Shaft-hole axes were widespread between southeast Russia, Ukraine, the Caucasus and northeast Russia. These are dated to the second millennium BC. They disappeared at the beginning of the first millennium BC. Amber trade routes in the Bronze Age, according to M. In: Aun Volume 1. Ebert, M Reallexikon der vorgeschichte.

The Hague. In: Lietuvos TSR archeologijos atlasas. Janse, O En Lithauen funnen brons-celt av s. Klochko, V Weapons of the tribes of the northern Pontic zone in the 16thth centuries B. In: Baltic-Pontic studies 1. Kulikauskas P. Lamm, J. P Carl von Schmith and his Necrolituanica.

In: Archeologia Baltica. In: Lietuvos archeologija. Nerman, B Miscellanea. In: Acta Archaeologica. Priachin, A. Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metais M. Pagaliau m. Apie tai A. Po kalinimo Vilniuje A. Vaigauskas m. Stebino, kaip lengvai A. Vasiliauskas A. Contents1 Biography1. His interest in Esperanto emerged as early as , when he received his first Esperanto textbook as a gift. His parents disapproved the various activities and he moved out to Kaunas in Zamenhof, inventor of Esperanto.

In July , he completed his first bike tour across Lithuania with three friends. With its completion an ambitious idea to reach India was conceived. They took very little money, 69 U. Thooti, he enrolled into the University of Bombay. He also befriended Suniti Kumar Chatterji who later embarked on a comparative study The Balts and the Aryans, exploring the commonalities between India's Vedic and the Baltic pagan rites.

He was awarded posthumously an honorary degree in In Turkey, he wrote an article on the Kurds and their aspirations for which he was arrested and escorted km mi in chains to Bulgaria in June In —40, he served as the Chairman of the Lithuanian Union of Esperantists. Two volumes of his book From the Baltic Sea to the Bay of Bengal were published just before the Soviet invasion of Lithuania in June ; the third volume, in the works at a press, was destroyed.

Despite Nazi orders to destroy Jewish books he concealed and preserved over 1, publications which were later transferred to the Jewish Museum. His academic nature won him positions at several ethnographic museums of Central Asia in —59, but due to his status of a political prisoner he could not assume leading posts and had trouble publishing his works.

He also took part in various archaeological expeditions in Central Asia. For example, in , together with biologist Tadas Ivanauskas, he visited the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve in Tajikistan[20] and later hitchhiked to Leningrad and Moldova. However, financial troubles delayed in his departure and the outbreak of World War II prevented him from completing this task.

However, this could not be confirmed by the archives of University of Calcutta. Pranab Mukherjee, President of India, was also present at the occasion. He wrote at least 30 articles in the Indian press between — Over articles on India were published in the Lithuanian press. He is best known for his journey to India In India, he studied Sanskrit and received a bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Bombay and a doctorate degree from the University of Calcutta on Shina-speaking people, but could not protect him.

He talked with Indias intellectual elite and was involved in anthropological expeditions. He met Rabindranath Tagore and translated some of his works in Lithuanian. Poska returned to Lithuania in , and worked as a journalist. He was recognized as a Righteous among the Nations for hiding three Lithuanian Jews during the Holocaust in Lithuania. After the establishment of Soviet power in , he refused to destroy books deemed unacceptable to the Soviet regime and was imprisoned in the GULAG.

Unable to return to Lithuania, Posca later worked in several museums in Central Asia. He was allowed to return to Lithuania in and worked as a lecturer and a journalist and continued his anthropological studies, but his past as a political prisoner, prevented him to take a more prominent position. At the age of 60 years, he visited 75 countries and Nations. Posca was a prolific writer to write articles in Lithuanian and foreign press.

His bibliography, published in , has a 3. Early life. His interest in Esperanto appeared in , when he received his first Esperanto textbook as a gift. He learned the language independently and in , during the First World War, a German soldier noticed that he was reading a book Esperanto. These compounds played a vital role in his subsequent travels. Posca has become an active member of the group Esperantist in Solutioi. While still a schoolboy, Posca started to submit articles in the Lithuanian press.

His parents did not approve various events, and he moved to Kaunas in In Kaunas, Posca lived in a dormitory supported by the society Ziburelis and worked, including work, while studying at night school. In he visited the Veisiejai and collected memories of local residents about L. Zamenhof, Creator of Esperanto. In he took part in the world Esperanto Congress in Nuremberg, Germany, and a year later received the certificate of the teacher of Esperanto from the Ministry of education of Lithuania.

In Posca studied medicine at Kaunas University. Poska began to travel in Lithuania and abroad too early. In July he completed his first bike tour across Lithuania with three friends. Three years later, he got a motorcycle and went on a journey around the Baltic sea visiting 12 countries. With his completion of an ambitious idea to reach India was conceived. The trip to India He chose to travel by motorcycle, which he received from the Belgian manufacturer FN for free in exchange for advertising.

Preparing for the journey, he met another dedicated traveler-Matas Salcius, a journalist by profession, who was much older and an experienced traveler. The Duo began their journey on a motorcycle on November 20, in Kaunas. Travelers first reached Constantinople, then in Cairo, and continued through the middle East. They took very little money, 69 USD, taken together, and had to find ways of making money in this way. They funded the trip with lectures in Esperanto, Lithuania, and other topics, as well as to submit articles and photographs in the Lithuanian and foreign press.

However, the relationship between Salcius and Posca deteriorated as they are facing financial troubles and mechanical problems. While in Tehran, Posca, became seriously ill. Salcius Posca abandoned, and later mentioned him in his memoirs. Posca received assistance from the local Esperantists and spent about six months recovering. He then took a ship to Bushire and arrived in Bombay on 23 March With local Esperantists and intellectuals, including Jivanji Jamshedji modi, and N.

Thooti, he entered the University of Bombay. In , he visited the University in Varanasi for 42 days to study the Sanskrit language and to start translating the Bhagavad Gita and rig Veda in the Lithuanian manuscript of the Bhagavad-Gita was lost, the translation of the rig Veda preserved in the National library of Lithuania them. After Posca moved to Calcutta and enrolled in the University of Calcutta.

During the trip to Mohenjo-Daro, he met with Professor Biraja Sankar Guha, who invited him to work in the anthropological laboratory of the Indian Museum. Lithuanian press widely reports that in , Posca was accompanied by Oxford University Professor Aurel Stein on the anthropological expedition to the Taklamakan desert in Central Asia.

However, in , Stein explored Persia. In , he was involved in anthropological expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Himalayas, where he collected information about the Bus-the language of the peoples of North-West Himalayas. In , Posca with a team of young scientists from the Indian Museum and went to a three-month expedition to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, led by Australian scientist Dr.

They traveled to different parts of the archipelago and studied the local aboriginal tribes. Posca and his team have collected somatometric measurements and other anthropological data about the lifestyle, habits and customs of the local inhabitants. He also became friends Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, who later embarked on a comparative study of the Balts and Aryans, exploring the similarities between Indias Vedic and Baltic pagan rites. Published as a monograph in the Indian Institute of advanced studies in , Chatterjis this book is dedicated to, among other things, Antanas Poska.

Friendship with the famous Indian Esperantist Sinha Laksmiswar Led Posca in the cultural Santiniketan griha, where he had the opportunity to chat with Rabindranath Tagore. Tagores under personal control, Posca translated some of Tagores poetry in Lithuanian, some of these manuscripts appeared again in , when the woman gave them Poskas daughter after several years of storage from the Soviet censorship.

Posca met Mahatma Gandhi twice in Bombay and Allahabad, and passed the support of the Lithuanian nation in the struggle for Indias independence, Gandhi Posca with a decorative handmade tissue, which he kept, despite various difficulties. In , Posca presented his doctoral thesis in physical anthropology under Professor Biraja Sankar Guha called the physical relationship of the Shina-speaking people in the Western Himalayas.

However, he was not able to defend her dissertation was lost. He was awarded posthumously the honorary title in Later life In Turkey, he wrote an article on the Kurds and their desire for which he was arrested and taken km mi in chains in Bulgaria in June He was released, but most of his possessions and research materials, including the translation of the Bhagavad Gita, was confiscated and never recovered. He spent some time in Bulgaria, where he collected the testimonies of local residents about Dr.

Jonas Basanavicius, one of the founding fathers of independent Lithuania, who lived in Bulgaria in the late 19th century. Poska returned to Lithuania shortly before Christmas In , Posca worked as a journalist for Newspapers and magazines Akademikas, Lietuvos Aidas, Trimitas, and was chief editor of the newspaper Darbas. In he served as the Chairman of the Lithuanian Union of Esperantists. After returning to Lithuania, Posca started writing his account of the Indian journey.

Was published shortly before the Soviet invasion of Lithuania in June , the third volume in the press, destroyed the two volumes of his book From the Baltic sea to the Bay of Bengal. Despite the danger, Posca is maintained for at least three Lithuanian Jews, hiding them from the SS in their home. Posca was awarded the life saving cross of Lithuania-Lithuanian President in and was recognized as Righteous by the government of Israel in Despite the Nazi orders to destroy Jewish books, which he concealed and preserved more than 1.

After the Soviets returned to Lithuania in mid, Poska was appointed to the chair of the library of the Lithuanian Soviet Commissariat of education. For refusing to obey orders from Juozas Ziugzda to destroy books published before the Soviet occupation, Posca was arrested in June , and sentenced to imprisonment in a labor camp in Siberia. He was first sent to prison near Velsk, Arkhangelsk oblast, and later in a labor camp in the Komi Republic. In , his labor sentence was commuted to forced relocation to Central Asia, without the right ever to return to Lithuania.

His academic nature has won him positions in several ethnographic museums in Central Asia in , but because of his status of a political prisoner, he could not assume leadership positions and had problems with the publication of their works. He has also participated in various archaeological expeditions in Central Asia. While in Osh, Posca studied caves, especially Rusha - Unkur cave or the cave of the eagle, the mountain Sulaiman-Too, and their petroglyphs.

During archaeological excavations in the cave, Posca found the inventory of microliths dated to the Neolithic. After the death of Stalin in , many Soviet political prisoners were examined again by the Soviet authorities in the course of de-Stalinization campaign and POSCO was allowed to return to Lithuania in After returning home Posca worked as a teacher, correspondent for several Newspapers, and Chairman of the restored Vilnius Esperantist club in As a former political prisoner, he remains suspect to the Soviet authorities and was not allowed to continue research activities or publish their books before the reforms of perestroika in Posca continued to travel.

For example, in , along with a biologist Tadas Ivanauskas, he visited the Tigrovaya Balka nature reserve in Tajikistan, and then went to Leningrad and Moldova. In the summer of at the age of 70 years, he went on the last major journey. The last decade of his Posca life spent under piles of his saved files, and not trying to publish it. His major work, the eight-volume book about his journey to India from the Baltic sea to the Bay of Bengal, were published by his followers after his death.

Honorary doctorate from the University of Calcutta. According Poskas Diary, his thesis was sent to the British Museum in London in , and he was going to go to London to defend there thesis. However, the financial problems of the delay in his departure and the beginning of the Second world war prevented him from fulfilling this task.

After his visit to Lithuania in , Dr. Later, Posca wrote in his diary that he had received a letter from Dr. Chatterjee, saying that the University of Calcutta has been provided by Posca candidate. However, this could not be confirmed in the archives of the University of Calcutta. In the Lithuanian Embassy in new Delhi took the initiative for the rapprochement of University of Calcutta with a proposal to posthumously award the Posca with a doctorate.

Pranab Mukherjee, President of India, was also present at the event. Regalia was obtained Laimute Poskaite, Antanas Poskas daughter. To commemorate Poskas connection with the University of Calcutta, a memorial plaque was unveiled in the University library on 16 January Most of these articles are published in Lithuania and other countries, as well as in the international magazines Esperanto. He has written at least 30 articles in the Indian press between More than articles on India were published in the Lithuanian press.

Article Poskas on his archaeological research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan were published in several Newspapers and magazines in Central Asia and archaeological journals in the USSR, sometimes under an assumed name. Posca wrote many books, but was published only a few:Esperanto raktas-a key to Esperanto, Kaunas, , published in in Vilnius — translation of a booklet, published in Geneva.

Mano Gyvenimo family story about my life, Vilnius. Requiem, poetic miniatures, and , Vilnius and Kaunas — written in prison on pieces of birch bark. Antanas Poska traveler and anthropologist. Poska as an organ of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Lithuania shares land borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Russia to the southwest.

Lithuania covers an area of 65, km2 25, sq mi , with a population of 2. Lithuanians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts and speak Lithuanian, one of only a few living Baltic languages. For millennia the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the s, Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, becoming king and founding the Kingdom of Lithuania on 6 July In the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe;[20] present-day Lithuania, Belarus, most of Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were all lands of the Grand Duchy.

The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries dismantled it in —, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. Towards the end of the war in , when the Germans were retreating, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuanian armed resistance to the Soviet occupation lasted until the early s. On 11 March , a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania passed the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, becoming the first Soviet republic to proclaim its independence.

It ranks favourably in terms of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, and peacefulness. Contents1 Etymology2 History2. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions.

Because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. On the other hand, such naming is not unprecedented in world history. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda, Neman and Narva cultures.

In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, and forests developed. The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania then travelled less and engaged in local hunting, gathering and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land.

Crafts and trade also started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd — 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD.

The Western Balts differentiated and became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, and early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians, Curonians and Semigallians. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most closely related existing language, around the 7th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. In , Polotsk and Pskov were ravaged, and even the distant and powerful Novgorod Republic was repeatedly threatened by the excursions from the emerging Lithuanian war machine toward the end of the 12th century.

Such military and pecuniary activities fostered social differentiation and triggered a struggle for power in Lithuania. This initiated the formation of early statehood, from which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania developed. Despite the devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly, overtaking former Ruthenian principalities of Kievan Rus'.

The Livonian Brothers were defeated during it and their further conquest of the Balts lands were stopped. Some thirty years' worth of conquests on the left bank of Daugava were lost. Gediminas, obeying the will of the gods, built the city and gave it the name Vilnius — from the stream of the Vilnia River. The ruling elite practised religious tolerance and the Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to Latin for official documents.

Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. Lithuania was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity. While territories to the north had been Christianized in by Western merchants and missionaries who formed the Order of the Brothers and the Sword to spread Christianity through military organization, the Lithuanians had defeated the Order's militant efforts in During his reign, Lithuania reached the peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state began, and the Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics.

In the great Battle of the Vorskla River in , the combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated by the Mongols. Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Lithuania and Poland achieved a victory over the Teutonic Knights in at the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles of medieval Europe.

Another crown was sent, but Vytautas died in the Trakai Island Castle several days before it reached Lithuania. He was buried in the Cathedral of Vilnius. But, at the end of the 15th century, Lithuania was forced to seek a closer alliance with Poland when the growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow threatened Lithuania's Russian principalities and sparked the Muscovite—Lithuanian Wars and the Livonian War.

According to Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii by Sigismund von Herberstein, the primary source for information on the battle, the much smaller army of Poland—Lithuania under 30, men defeated a force of 80, Muscovite soldiers, capturing their camp and commander. Thousands of Muscovites were captured as prisoners and used as labourers in the Lithuanian manors, while Konstanty Ostrogski delivered the captured Muscovite flags to the Cathedral of Vilnius. The truce was extended for twenty years in , when a diplomatic mission to Moscow led by Lew Sapieha concluded negotiations with Tsar Boris Godunov.

As a member of the Commonwealth, Lithuania retained its institutions, including a separate army, currency, and statutory laws — the Statute of Lithuania. From the midth to the midth centuries, culture, arts, and education flourished, fueled by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. From , the Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania were elected by the nobility, who were granted ever-increasing Golden Liberties. These liberties, especially the liberum veto, led to anarchy and the eventual dissolution of the state.

The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century. Its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War; this neutrality spared the country from the ravages of a political-religious conflict that devastated most of contemporary Europe.

The Commonwealth held its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, and vassals of the Ottoman Empire, and even launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbours. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September to 4 November , when they were driven out after a siege.

Between 8, and 10, citizens were killed; the city burned for 17 days. Those who returned after the catastrophe could not recognise the city. The Russian occupation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania lasted up to Many artefacts and cultural heritage were either lost or looted, significant parts of the state archive — Lithuanian Metrica, collected since the 13th century, were lost and the rest was moved out of the country.

During the Northern Wars — , the Lithuanian territory and economy were devastated by the Swedish army. This period is known as Tvanas The Deluge. Before it could fully recover, Lithuania was ravaged during the Great Northern War — The legislation was designed to redress the Commonwealth's political defects due to the system of Golden Liberties, also known as the "Nobles' Democracy," which had conferred disproportionate rights on the nobility Szlachta and over time had corrupted politics.

The constitution sought to supplant the prevailing anarchy fostered by some of the country's magnates with a more democratic constitutional monarchy. It introduced elements of political equality between townspeople and nobility, and placed the peasants under the protection of the government, thus mitigating the worst abuses of serfdom.

It banned parliamentary institutions such as the liberum veto, which had put the Sejm at the mercy of any deputy who could revoke all the legislation that had been passed by that Sejm. It was drafted in relation to a copy of the United States Constitution. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania MinorEventually, the Commonwealth was partitioned in , , and by the Russian Empire, Prussia, and the Habsburg monarchy.

The largest area of Lithuanian territory became part of the Russian Empire. After the unsuccessful uprisings in and , the Tsarist authorities implemented a number of Russification policies. In the Third Statute of Lithuania was abolished. They banned the Lithuanian press, closed cultural and educational institutions and made Lithuania part of a new administrative region called Northwestern Krai. The Russification failed, owing to an extensive network of Lithuanian book smugglers and secret Lithuanian homeschooling.

The Russian Empire resumed the construction of fortresses at its western borders for defence against a potential invasion from Germany in the West. On 7 July the Russian Emperor Alexander II approved a proposal from the Russian military leadership to build the largest "first-class" defensive structure in the entire state — the 65 km2 25 sq mi Kaunas Fortress. A colleague of S. Daukantas, Teodor Narbutt wrote in Polish a voluminous Ancient History of the Lithuanian Nation — , where he likewise expounded and expanded further on the concept of historic Lithuania, whose days of glory had ended with the Union of Lublin in Narbutt, invoking German scholarship, pointed out the relationship between the Lithuanian and Sanskrit languages.

A Lithuanian National Revival, inspired by the ancient Lithuanian history, language and culture, laid the foundations of the modern Lithuanian nation and independent Lithuania. Lithuanians lost all political rights they had gained: personal freedom was restricted, and at the beginning, the Lithuanian press was banned. The council adopted the Act of Independence of Lithuania on 16 February which proclaimed the restoration of the independent state of Lithuania governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital.

The state of Lithuania which had been built within the framework of the Act lasted from until Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiersFollowing the capitulation of Germany in November , the first Provisional Constitution of Lithuania was adopted and the first government of Prime Minister Augustinas Voldemaras was organized.

At the same time, the army and other state institutions began to be organized. Lithuania fought three wars of independence: against the Bolsheviks who proclaimed the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, against the Bermontians, and against Poland. The region became an autonomous region of Lithuania. Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania —, — On 15 May , the first meeting of the democratically elected constituent assembly took place. The documents it adopted, i.

Land, finance, and educational reforms started to be implemented. The currency of Lithuania, the Lithuanian litas, was introduced. The University of Lithuania was opened. As Lithuania began to gain stability, foreign countries started to recognize it. In Lithuania was admitted to the League of Nations. Augustinas Voldemaras was appointed to form a government. The so-called authoritarian phase had begun strengthening the influence of one party, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, in the country.

In , the Seimas was dissolved. Gradually, opposition parties were banned, censorship was tightened, and the rights of national minorities were narrowed. Lituanica above New York in The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight. They flew across the Atlantic Ocean, covering a distance of 6, km 3, mi without landing, in 37 hours and 11 minutes In terms of comparison, as far as the distance of non-stop flights was concerned, their result ranked second only to that of Russell Boardman and John Polando.

The provisional capital Kaunas, which was nicknamed Little Paris, and the country itself had a Western standard of living with sufficiently high salaries and low prices. At the time, qualified workers there were earning very similar real wages as workers in Germany, Italy, Switzerland and France, the country also had a surprisingly high natural increase in population of 9.

In addition to economic ones, political demands were made. The government cruelly suppressed the unrest. In the spring of , four peasants were sentenced to death for starting the riots. Two days later, the Lithuanian government accepted the ultimatum. In October , Lithuania was forced to sign the Soviet—Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty: five Soviet military bases with 20, troops were established in Lithuania in exchange for Vilnius, which the Soviets had captured from Poland.

They demanded the replacement of the Lithuanian government and that the Red Army be allowed into the country. The government decided that, with Soviet bases already in Lithuania, armed resistance was impossible and accepted the ultimatum. The Baltic states were occupied. The Soviets followed semi-constitutional procedures for transforming the independent countries into soviet republics and incorporating them into the Soviet Union. Vladimir Dekanozov was sent to supervise the formation of the puppet People's Government and the rigged election to the People's Seimas.

Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50, strong at its peak. Lithuanians proclaimed independence and organized the Provisional Government of Lithuania. This government quickly self-disbanded. About 70, of them were Jews. The Lietuvos saugumo policija targeted the communist underground.

Nationalized assets were not returned to the residents. Some of them were forced to fight for Nazi Germany or were taken to German territories as forced labourers. Jewish people were herded into ghettos and gradually killed by shooting or sending them out to concentration camps. The massive deportations to Siberia were resumed and lasted until the death of Stalin in Under the pretext of Lithuania's economic recovery, the Moscow authorities encouraged the migration of workers and other specialists to Lithuania with the intention to further integrate Lithuania into the Soviet Union and to develop the country's industry.

At the same time, Lithuanians were lured to work in the USSR by promising them all the privileges of settling in a new place. The second Soviet occupation was accompanied by the guerrilla warfare of the Lithuanian population, which took place in — It sought to restore an independent state of Lithuania, to consolidate democracy by destroying communism in the country, returning national values and the freedom of religion.

About 50, Lithuanians took to the forests and fought Soviet occupants with a gun in their hands. The underground dissident groups were active publishing the underground press and Catholic literature. In , after Romas Kalanta's public self-immolation, the unrest in Kaunas lasted for several days.

The Helsinki Group, which was founded in Lithuania after the international conference in Helsinki Finland , where the post-WWII borders were acknowledged, announced a declaration for Lithuania's independence on foreign radio station. Very soon it began to seek country's independence.

On 23 August a big rally took place at the Vingis Park in Vilnius. It was attended by approx. The Act was the first such declaration in the USSR and later served as a model, inspiration to other Soviet republics, and strongly influenced the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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