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Jonathan wilson investing the pyramid pdf editor

jonathan wilson investing the pyramid pdf editor

to How Soldiers Fight Wars Today. Ebook pages 4 hours About this ebook Jonathan Wilson joins Tifo to answer all of these questions and more. Baillie, J.E.M., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (Editors) IUCN Red List of Threatened. Species. A Global Species Assessment. by Jonathan Potter and Gabriela Miranda of the OECD LEED Programme who ment, high-growth firms, large firm innovation, inward investment. GOLF EACH WAY BETTING RULES ON BASEBALL

Hence, this is a One Welfare issue, affecting human, animal, and environmental welfare and highlighting the fragility of intensive, high-throughput livestock production systems. This model needs to be re-shaped to include the animal, human, and environmental elements across the farm to fork chain.

Such a One Welfare approach will ensure that food production systems are resilient, flexible, and fair in the face of future challenges. Introduction The emergence of a novel pandemic disease should not have taken the world by surprise. Within the last century, the influenza pandemic infected an estimated million people and killed 17—50 million 1. More recently, the swine flu pandemic infected about 61 million and killed an estimated , 2.

This is combined with the threat of zoonoses emerging from wild animal populations, especially in regions of the world where wildlife biodiversity is high and land-use change is occurring 6. This is against a background of pressures arising from climate change, food security, and safety 7 and antimicrobial use and resistance 8.

Until now, the major perceived threats in intensive livestock production were a pandemic outbreak of a foreign animal viral disease, exacerbated by secondary bacterial infections and potential concurrent antimicrobial resistance driven by use of medically important antimicrobials. A pandemic may bring expected challenges but there are always unforeseen ramifications that transcend human health This paper will focus on the impact that COVID is having on One Welfare within livestock production from farm to fork with particular focus on the pig and poultry industries.

We focus on the United States U. However, we expect that the situation is similar in all affected countries with intensive livestock production industries. COVID Effects on the Livestock Product Supply Chain Livestock, and particularly pig and poultry, production in the industrialized world, and increasingly in the developing world, is characterized by its intensive nature, initially driven by post-war government policies intended to increase production and decrease cost, but now sustained by consumer demand for cheap food Farms are fewer in number but larger, with more animals and birds per holding in enclosed, climate-controlled buildings, with more automation and fewer stockpersons.

Vertical integration is common, meaning a single company will own all parts of the system, from feed mill to processing plant. Disruption of flow at any part of the chain will therefore have immediate impact both upstream and downstream, with likely immediate consequences for animal welfare but also for humans and the environment. Among the products to disappear from supermarket shelves in the first few days were toilet rolls, disinfectants and sanitizers, pasta, rice, flour, and yeast, and in some countries, eggs, cheese, and milk.

General trends included increased meat, egg, and dairy retail sales with a sharp upward spike as lockdowns were announced 14 , but then sustained sales when compared with year-on-year, from early March to July, where records are available This was a consequence of the increase in meals being prepared at home, with schools, workplaces, and restaurants closed.

Countries such as the U. Hence, gaps on shelves did not represent a shortage of commodity per se but the commodity existing in forms unsuitable for supermarkets compounded by distribution chains unable to cope with increased retail demand. The demand fell for high-end beef usually served in restaurants and farmers and processors struggled to cope with changing levels and types of demand from different sectors. However, the greatest impact of COVID on the livestock product supply chain commenced with disease outbreaks among processing plant workers, leading to plant closures and effects up and down the food chain.

In Germany, coronavirus infected more than 1, workers in one of Europe's largest meat-processing plants Forty-nine plants were closed for various lengths of time 19 , and nearly U. Department of Agriculture—Food Safety Inspection Service inspectors tested positive, with four deaths In a study of processing plants in 23 states, 9.

Apart from the obvious direct impact on human welfare for those who were infected and became ill or died from the disease, the clusters at processing plants highlighted several inequality issues that contributed to the outbreaks. Firstly, the vast majority of the workforce in meat plants represent migrant and minority workers who are inherently more vulnerable to exploitation 22 compounded by language barriers Additionally, the processing portion including slaughter and packing of farm-to-fork production is inherently more dangerous than non-food system industries Meat, dairy, and fish production is more dangerous than other food production, with relatively high levels of severe equipment-related and assault-related injuries, and more fatalities from assaults from co-workers and animals and exposure to harmful substances 24 , together with increased psychological distress among slaughterhouse workers Those on the processing line work in very close proximity where food safety and the risk of zoonotic disease direct hygiene practices, rather than person-to-person disease spread.

Superimposed upon these dangers, is evidence of low pay, lack of sick leave and affordable healthcare, together with high density and low quality housing for workers When processing plants started closing down, the affected workers faced financial uncertainty.

Workers elsewhere in the supply chain also faced a period of insecurity when the effects of plant closures became apparent, including job losses, financial impacts, loss of animals, etc. Where plants were still working but with reduced staffing, workloads were increased or duties changed, both likely to increase risk of injury. In some instances, the limits on line speeds were raised by waivers from the USDA-FSIS, again likely increasing worker stress and injury risk, and with potential impacts on animal welfare stunning effectiveness and food safety.

A record number of 16 poultry processing plants acquired line speed waivers in March and April Faster line speeds likely contributed to the reduction in the post-mortem condemnation percent which fell 7.

After a slight rebound in May, a new record low of 0. This indication of possible reduced inspection oversight is supported by the fact that between and , there is a strong negative correlation between the number of plants with line speed waivers and percent of weight condemned Figure 1. Ultimately, this represents a major threat to public health and welfare through reduced food safety Relationship between number of poultry processing plants given line speed waivers by USDA-FSIS and the percent of chicken meat condemned by weight, between January and July [Sources: 27 , 28 ].

Processing plant closures affected some farmers who, faced with nowhere to send animals for slaughter, had to prepare for and carry out mass depopulation of surplus animals. We detail the impact this had on animal welfare below, but mass depopulation also carries a human welfare cost, for the stockperson and for those tasked with carrying it out.

Even at a single animal level, emotional strain on stockpersons is a barrier to the euthanasia of sick animals When moving to a farm population level, the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK showed that affected farmers suffered increased stress, marginalization, and depression Two years after the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in Japan in , veterinarians, livestock technicians and even clerical workers interacting with the farmers suffered mental stress Finally, a less obvious impact on human welfare is the public health risk posed by carcass disposal Of all carcass disposal methods open air burning and unlined burial of carcasses pose the highest risks of contaminating ground and surface water, soil, and air with pollutants and pathogens like E.

Though banned in many countries 36 the U. Composting is a frequently employed method of disposing of casualty animals on farm and it too poses similar risks if done at scale Additional risks to public health are posed by vectors that feed on carcasses, such as birds, flies, and mosquitos as they can spread biological leachate components Concerns were raised for public health in areas where carcasses were disposed of using such methods not only because of the risk of pathogen spread but also because of odor and flies 39 , The air around pig and poultry sites contains hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, particulate matter, and bacteria Such pollutants act as eye and respiratory irritants Unsurprisingly then, inhabitants are more likely to suffer more from asthma and other respiratory diseases Exposure to these pollutants also contributes to mental stress 45 and elevated blood pressure Hence, the threats to public health associated with carcass disposal may compound existing health challenges for people in the surrounding population and may even place them at higher risk of serious complications or death should they contract COVID COVID Effects on Animal Welfare The biosecurity and pollution risks posed by mass carcass disposal outlined in the preceding section could also adversely affect the welfare of wild animals, fish, birds, and insects which are not discussed in the current paper.

Here we focus on the effects that human clusters of COVID at meat processing plants and the associated decisions to close them, had on animal welfare. Within the U. Over the next 4 weeks, a cascade of closures across cattle, poultry, and pig sectors followed—some closures were only for a few days for deep cleaning, others were longer The result was a loss in slaughter and processing capacity. By the 4th week in April, it was estimated that pig slaughter capacity in the U.

The impact was similar for other livestock industries reflected in the monthly data for all species Figure 2. Numbers of A broiler chickens, B cattle, and C pigs slaughtered per month in the United States between January and July over the last 3 years [Sources: 28 , 49 ]. By April 28th , the U. President invoked the Defense Production Act of , and issued an Executive Order mandating processing plants to reopen.

Since then, plants reopened, but many with reduced capacity due to staff shortages. By May 19th, pig slaughter capacity was back to For poultry, increasing the number of processing plants operating with line speed waivers recaptured some of the reduced capacity. This possibly increased the number of birds exposed to incomplete stunning which poses major concerns for animal welfare With the slaughter end of the chain experiencing reduced capacity, there is an almost immediate impact on animal welfare on farm mostly arising from overcrowding.

As detailed above, the poultry and pig industries in particular are intensive and integrated, with little or no flexibility within the production system. With longer gestations and slower growth rates, cattle production is under less immediate pressure. In some cases, there is extra slaughter capacity at other processing plants, but this may increase transportation time and distance, exposing animals and birds to increased transport stress Intensive pig and poultry production systems are characterized by maximal use of buildings, maximizing the number of chickens or pigs per square area, and the number of days the pens or buildings are in use per year.

Each farm has a pre-determined flow with rigid set dates for the animals to enter and leave, based on expected growth rates. Broiler chickens arrive on farm as day-old chicks and are ready to leave at slaughter weight 6—7 weeks later. With a 3-week egg incubation period, the whole production cycle is 9—10 weeks.

Pigs in the U. With a nearly 4-month gestation period, the pig production cycle is 41—44 weeks. Without the ability to move livestock off the farm, serious overcrowding occurs within days or a few weeks at most. For broiler chickens, their phenomenal growth rate causes almost immediate problems in terms of lack of space. Hence, overcrowding from a legal definition occurs within 1—7 days.

From a welfare perspective, high stocking densities can lead to decreased walking ability, poorer leg health, increased fearfulness, increased footpad and hock dermatitis and increased mortality Overcrowding-induced increased heat production and associated reduced environmental qualities, such as poorer air and bedding quality exacerbates these welfare issues.

Pigs are selected for increased growth rates but the fact that the birth-to-slaughter time period is 24—28 weeks and is a multi-stage process, means the industry is slightly more flexible compared to broiler production. Modeling exercises determine the impacts that imposed movement restrictions may have with respect to an outbreak of a foreign animal disease FAD , such as African swine fever ASF. Increasingly, pig production is on multiple sites, with piglets moving off the breeding farm at weaning or after nursery phase.

Without movement between units, breeding-only units can reach critical overcrowding in 4—5 days. Nursery units take 24—52 days, grow-finish units take 78 days and farrow-to-finish units take 43 days 54 , 55 to achieve crowding. Effects of crowding for pigs includes decreased general activity and comfort behaviors, increased aggression, skin lesions and tail injuries, increased foot and limb injuries, reduced growth and physiological function, and increased susceptibility to disease The latter increases use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance.

Clearly, fast growth rates are a major factor in overcrowding. In pigs, methods to decrease growth rates include removal of growth promoters, moving to lower energy diets, reducing feed availability and increasing building temperature to reduce appetite and hence, feed intake Removing growth promotors is likely to improve pig welfare However, anything that reduces feed intake may lead to animals experiencing hunger, a negative affective state 59 and reduced satiety may also lead to increased aggression as animals seek to gain access to a limited resource Likewise, inducing heat stress has detrimental effects on pig welfare One way to slow or stop new animals and birds entering at the input end is to stop breeding the females.

However, as the gestation length is nearly 16 weeks in pigs, it would take that long to feel the impact of this measure. Inducing abortions would have an immediate effect in terms of easing space in the farrowing house, which could be repurposed as nursery pig accommodation. This would relieve pressure up the chain, but only on a temporary basis. For poultry, the chain is much shorter, and a reduction in eggs entering the incubator, results in a reduction in bird numbers within 3 weeks.

Alternatively, eggs can be removed from the incubator and euthanized, or chicks killed at hatching. The recommended methods for egg euthanasia are dependent on the stage of incubation. Implications for animal welfare of euthanizing eggs are unknown but there are considerable welfare, ethical, and societal concerns surrounding the killing of day old chicks 63 , The apparatus should contain rapidly rotating, mechanically operating blades.

Maceration is banned in Switzerland, France, and Germany. There is some evidence that the U. A Numbers of eggs set and broiler chicks placed between January and July, and B broiler chicks placed as a percent of eggs set 3 weeks previously between January and July over the last 3 years in the United States [Source: 68 ]. The worst-case scenario is where the only resolution to the backlog of animals is to kill them on farm. At the very least, emergency killings should observe the same level of animal welfare as during planned killings or standard slaughter.

However, this is difficult to achieve when killing animals at scale in an emergency. The most recent widespread need for mass depopulation of animals was in the control of ASF outbreaks and disturbing videos emerged of the burial and burning of live animals in Asia. However, there is little research on some of these methods.

For example, sodium nitrite was previously only used in the control of feral pig populations 70 and never for mass depopulation of commercial pigs. Its efficacy is contingent upon pigs being able to ingest a toxic dose in a limited and acceptable, non-defined timeframe This highlights the paucity of information for pigs.

The exact numbers of healthy pigs killed as a consequence of COVID is not yet available, but officials in Iowa, the top pig-producing state in the U. For poultry, different methods are approved depending on whether the birds are indoors or outdoors and if they are floor-reared or caged Whole-house gassing using CO2 emerged as the major method of choice, together with water-based foam methods.

Importantly, The World Organization for Animal Health OIE does not condone water-based foam for euthanasia, even in situations of emergency disease control Recently, the European Commission tasked the European Food Standards Agency to examine the scientific evidence surrounding mass euthanasia of farm animal species and identify hazards to animal welfare.

The report concerning poultry identified 29 potential hazards, of which 26 were associated with the personnel carrying out the task For both whole-house gassing and foam methods, insufficient time of exposure was a hazard. Timing of the accompanying VSD needs to be appropriate so that the chosen method is the cause of killing, rather than thermal stress caused by VSD itself.

As with pigs, the exact number of poultry euthanized due to COVID is currently unknown, but there are reports of the culling of up to 10 million chickens in the U. The potential negative impact of mass depopulation on the welfare of animals and birds is likely enormous. Correspondingly, World Animal Protection called on the AVMA to remove this and water based foams from its guidelines of currently approved methods for the depopulation of animals as it causes prolonged heat stress and suffocation Most methods of killing have limitations in one or more of these factors For example, there may be a trade-off between possible distress during a longer time to induce unconsciousness and the benefits of reduced handling of individual animals associated with a particular method.

The subjective feelings of the animals subjected to mass depopulation are likely to include, fear, pain, and distress potentially reflected in open-mouth breathing, ataxia, righting responses, escape attempts, and vocalizations 76 among other behavioral signs of suffering. However, there are major environmental implications associated with disposing of carcasses at scale 38 , Furthermore, as pig and poultry industries are often concentrated in specific geographical areas, killing thousands of animals and birds may create a new stream of waste in ecosystems already burdened by environmental pollution [e.

Generally, as carcasses degrade, bodily fluids, chemical and biological leachate components and hazardous gases [e. The extent to which there is a risk of this occurring obviously depends on the chosen method However, some of the more risky methods of carcass disposal 38 were employed in the U. However, this may be a bit too ambitious and unrealistic. After all, IM is largely about having a better understanding of the diverse Muslim consumers and designing integrated marketing better placed to serve their needs.

If the view is that social cohesion and mobility can be achieved through linking Islam and Muslim geographies with education, tailored product offerings, sympathetic messaging, and consumption linked with Islam made conspicuous — then perhaps scholars and industry can play a part in bridging gaps more successfully than in existing subject disciplines rooted in the humanities. Due to the significance of this lived cultural experience, we use the allegory of the crescent — which is a powerful symbol not only in the Muslim world, but also in other Eastern religions hailing from India, China, and Japan.

We argue that a new dawn is on the horizon — that can be observed by the sighting of a new moon, which craves authentically marketed value propositions, offered by marketers who stand side by side with their offerings. Inspiration for this method was taken from Sidney J. From a Culture Theory perspective, he spoke of the necessity of researchers 26 being immersed within a sea of culture and that particular geographies and cultural settings required further intuitive interrogation.

To this end, we participated in an iterative process when analysing longitudinal and contemporary phenomenological data, in order to arrive at a consensus. The method of investigation draws on the expertise of the authors, as a panel of research active experts who serve on the editorial advisory board for the Journal of Islamic Marketing alongside other marketing journals. In tandem with their own research activities, serving on editorial boards offers them exposure to regular subject specific manuscript submissions and peer review feedback, which positions them firmly as experts in the field.

Based upon this emersion, research for this paper was conducted through an iterative process of investigation and knowledge sharing, in order to arrive at a collective consensus, which shares methodological parallels with modified Delphi studies Powell, The Delphi ideal is one of unearthing knowledge beyond truisms, and so cannot be assessed according to the usual psychological test criteria of reliability and validity. We have to say that this process was engaging, highly informative and a great learning experience for all of us.

It was not easy to arrive at a final consensus and it took the best part of a year to bounce ideas, write and revise the paper. From the length of the paper, which was meant to be a relatively short viewpoint piece, it is perhaps also apparent that the size of topic and what still remains under researched is great. Furthermore, we were driven by a passionate and scholarly desire to capture enough of our experiences, in sufficient depth.

Also, we encourage other scholars and practitioners to document more of their discussions in a similar way — especially following conferences, business meetings, research workshops, and as part of exploratory studies. Committing such discussions to print, documents valuable information and knowledge sharing, which perhaps might otherwise be lost, and is conducive to refining conceptual arguments.

Reflections on key literature There has recently been a blossoming of research interest in IM and Islamic consumer behaviour Alserhan and Alserhan, Conferences and special issues of journals on IM offer further evidence listed in the references section. Notably, all of these developments have been in English, as the English-speaking world seeks to discover more about Islam, Islamic Consumers, and 27 marketing to these consumers Jafari et al.

These occurrences have contributed toward a period of global reorientation and JIMA is well situated to help stimulate scholarship and research on topics of increasingly vital interest Alserhan, b. The study of Muslim consumers, Muslim entrepreneurs, branding and business practices in Muslim contexts has gained recent interest from academics and business practitioners from all over the world Wilson and Hollensen, , ; Wilson and Liu, , ; Temporal, ; Alserhan and Alserhan, ; Wilson, a-e.

This rise of attention can be explained by the increasing economic, political, and cultural power of Muslims in Muslim-majority and minority countries as well as the emergence of a new middle class of Muslim consumers striving to strike a balance between their Islamic values and the marketplace offerings of the global consumer ethos Sandikci, ; Sobh et al. In many Muslim countries like Turkey, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Gulf countries, the omnipresence or resurgence of Islam and religious values in shaping identities and informing behaviour, coupled with the accumulation of wealth and increasing integration of these countries into the global economy, have resulted in large segments of ultramodern and empowered Muslim consumers keen to partake in global consumer culture, yet striving to remain faithful to their Islamic values in their everyday practice Sandikci and Ger, ; Alserhan, a, c; Wong, The outcome is the emergence of negotiated multilayered Muslim identities and lifestyles worthy of exploration by both practitioners and academics.

There exists long-standing interest in cultural research, with some earlier work making comparisons of marketing and consumption between developing countries in the Islamic and Christian worlds, and Islamic consumption practices within what are predominantly Western, Christian markets Belk and Ger, ; Belk et al. The driving factors of these studies, as seen by the authors of these papers are to show the dynamic and JIMA changing character of Islamic consumption practices, focusing attention on issues of 4,1 gender, modernity, and inter-ethnic relations in the Muslim world.

Not only are the academic and business markets anxious for such research, the mutual definition of self and other is 28 thrown into high definition in a globalizing and shrinking world. As in other multinational contexts, there are issues of how to respect and become more knowledgeable about Islamic values, to appreciate the multiple cultures of Islam, to become aware of the competing swirl of values within Islamic societies and between Islamic and non-Islamic societies, and to envision new opportunities for greater cultural and marketing exchanges Abdullah, ; Ahmed, ; Sandikci and Ger, ; Wilson and Liu, The implications for practitioners are that there are numerous opportunities apparent for marketing in Islamic cultures.

There are also numerous challenges for Islamic businesses to market consumer goods globally. The resources exist to become more of a global player beyond merely marketing to the Islamic Diaspora, acting as an invisible part of the global supply chain, or buying up existing businesses. But there are barriers in terms of entrepreneurial skills, education, and global market stereotypes and expectations Wilson, a, b, e.

While it is increasingly easy to find treatments about marketing to the Islamic consumer, it is difficult to find much of anything about marketing by the Islamic businessperson. Given the great history of Islamic merchants, this is ironic. Shaping the crescent marketing phenomenon The following section groups the main literature findings, existing empirical data, and expert observations, in order to establish a basis for further theoretical developments.

By shifting attention onto the symbolism of the moon, we wanted to move away from that of the sun — which is often used to reflect upon notions of rising and setting enlightenment and power in the East and West. The sun is essential to the daily worship of Muslims, governing times of prayer — but the lunar cycle sets the Muslim calendar and dictates when further worship such as fasting should be observed.

Because of this, some older Orientalist texts have previously made erroneous and derogatory assertions that Muslims are moon worshippers, which fuelled critical responses from Said Our focus is on encouraging a longer-term and cyclical perspective towards IM — across the sacred, profane and mundane.

Furthermore, the symbolism of the moon has also been linked with the East, seduction, passion, romanticism, lunacy, irrationality, and darkness with all of its relative connotations. It is apparent that IM is open to misunderstandings and suspicion — as this newly found passion is sometimes eclipsed by aspersions in some quarters of lunacy and irrationality. From these, we argue that the full emotional experience of participants and observers within the field of IM should be examined.

Anecdotally, the crescent was not originally a symbol of Islam, but came afterwards — perhaps in response to the strong symbolism of other faiths such as Christianity, or through embracing the significance of the crescent in other Eastern religions and cultures.

We have reflected upon this final point and considered whether IM is Crescent following the same path. First, is it an offensive or defensive stance in response to marketing Christian-centric theoretical marketing iconography?

And second, could it even entertain the idea of pluralism — as Islam states that everything is permissible, unless stated otherwise? Table I. Key discussions 29 The following phenomena are held to be the most significant topics, which will influence how practitioners serve these growing markets and Muslim geographies.

Comparably, it is suggested that these are the areas most in need of further empirical investigation and academic research. Neo-spiritualism is a term we use to extend the frame of reference offered by the Arabic word deen, to also encompass Consumer Culture Theory — to mirror the phenomenon of how consumerism and consumption linked to Islam has risen in the twenty-first century. Instead, understanding a Muslim culture of dynamic social networks and nodes of socialisation, linked with possessions, rituals, space, time and context is vital.

For some, spirituality is governed by Islam, but this spiritual observance can also share commonalities with music and sport practices — both of which have fan atic s. Therefore, at this stage of discovery, the social sciences can offer contributions beyond those of theologians, concerning Muslim and interconnected non-Muslim thoughts, feelings, and actions in the widest sense. First and foremost, marketing is concerned with the needs and desires of humans — and to some extent needs to maintain a level of hermeneutical apoliticism, non-partisanship, and even irreligiosity.

This may seem like a strange recommendation within the field of IM, however we believe that even within orthodox Islam there is a similar pursuit. Central to Islam is the concept of negation, followed by acceptance. The first part of the declaration of Muslim faith, the shahadah, which all Muslims must proclaim, reaffirm frequently, and adhere to, is split into two parts.

Moving forward, Muslims seem set to gravitate toward greater collaborative consumption and new ways of interpreting what faith means — and how it shapes life in the here and now. This could mean that the role of the imam religious leader or scholar changes. Rather than being autocratic sources of knowledge and verdicts, they will be brought into an arena of democratic collaboration and consultation with the wider Muslim community using the internet and social media. This is especially evident with Muslim youth, who check and check again, and are engaged in hypercommunication via wide ranging transnational social media sources.

Increase in business and management courses with Islamic studies content and Muslim languages globally 30 Emerging market overlap China has as an estimated million Muslims. India has million Muslims. Growing number of Hispanic and Latino Muslims Emerging markets Indonesia: university figures, social media, political imperative. With 17, islands, Indonesia is the most populous Muslim nation, with million Muslims English language significance The shift towards the use of English in trade and commerce.

The rise in English language Islamic instruction and materials. A key factor being that the majority of Muslims are non-native Arabic language speakers, whilst Arabic remains the language of Islam Evangelical conspicuous The role of symbolism in affirming and celebrating a strong consumption religious and contemporary identity, beyond mere shariah compliance.

Single issue politic and boycott groups, also with alternative product offerings, e. The growth in halal certification bodies Halal living Music, films, entertainment, comedy, art, and fashion. Halal certified hotels and holiday packages. Visibly vocal and practising Muslim entertainment artists and athletes.

Muhammad Ali and Yusuf Islam perhaps being the catalysts Halal supply chains Logistics and supply chain processes in compliance with shariah principles Islamic finance and banking The growth of shariah compliant financial models and offerings, including: microfinance, insurance takaful and bonds sukuk Manufacture and commodities Nine of the top ten oil and gas reserves Iranian and Malaysian car manufacturing agreements. Joint ventures with Korean and French car manufacturers.

Branded inconspicuous and conspicuous formed consumer identities. Aesthetic attractive modesty as a proselytizing instrument. Notably, the Arab religiosity Spring and single issue politics boycott movements Social media religious The internet as a resource for information gathering and instruction knowledge sharing. Online searches for religious and legal verdicts; halal and ingredient verification. Prayer timetable and compass Apps Spiritual tourism Packages framed as holidays, which allow for worship and pilgrimage, while enjoying recreational and social activities Sports and sponsorships The rise in sports competitions, and professional training facilities in the Gulf region.

Sponsorship of Soccer and Rugby football teams and stadiums. World Cup in Qatar The Prophet of profithood The Prophet Muhammad and his companions as timeless exemplars for both marketers and consumers. A focus not just on LifeTime value, but also AfterLifetime value Tourist hubs The Gulf region as a both a tourist destination and stop-over. Brunei Halal Hub Tribal sub-culture Muslim youth mediating complex situation specific identities.

A hybridization key observation being the significant influence of Afro-American culture and civil rights movements. Notable examples being: Malcolm-X, Hip hop, fashion, and food. Citizen journalists and user generated content sharing lived experiences, which look to lift the veil. For example, reasons for conversion; various fashionable ways to tie a headscarf Unifying concept of Ummah A global Muslim identity, which crosses socio-economic groups, and its interplay with cultural ethnicities, and nations — most evident when observing Muslim nation branding pilgrims in Mecca Note: In alphabetical order, rather than ranking according to significance Table I.

A notable example of this can be taken from the Arab Spring — where communities mobilized themselves using social media, in a form of leaderless opposition. Conversions and reversions to Islam More commonly in the fields of sociology and political science, there has been a growing interest into the drivers behind an increase in Islamic observance.

It has been postulated that this is particularly interesting, due to its visibility in the West. A culture of freedom of expression supported by legislation, have allowed culturally born Muslims an opportunity to soul search and question their faith. Commitment and adherence to Islam can be most visibly observed by 4,1 the number of females wearing headscarves; the construction of mosques; and prayer rooms in workplaces, commercial spaces like airports, and academic institutions.

A reoccurring question often posed is why this is happening amongst Muslim citizens in the West, when it was thought that freedom of choice, liberalism, and exposure to other ways of life would in fact neuter a faith such as Islam — which 32 mandates that its practising followers adhere to so many prescriptive and regular guidelines?

Dress codes, regular prayer five times a day from dawn to night, visits to the mosque, dietary codes, fasting for at least one month a year, taxes on wealth, and learning Arabic are some of the main activities, which Muslims find challenging even within Muslim countries — where societies are designed to assist Muslims in these duties. In comparison in the West, Muslims have to work hard to find time and a place to pray at work.

And during the fasting month of Ramadan, unlike in Muslim countries, the working day is not adapted to coincide with when Muslims can break their fast and eat again. These examples it is argued are testament to the passion and steadfastness with which some Muslims in the West are practising their faith. The focus of this paper is not to try and offer reasons as to why there are more practising Muslims in the West, but rather to make the following observations. The ethnic and cultural diversity of Muslims in the West is great.

Furthermore, there are a growing number of Western educated and affluent home-grown Muslims, who can no longer be classified or dismissed according to Occidentalist and Orientalist constructs. These two factors alone have transformed how Islam is interpreted and practised, which poses challenges. What this means within the field of marketing is that generalisations and inferences according to ethnicity, country of origin, cultural heritage and even the names of individuals will become less reliable and insightful.

A simple indicator of this fact can be seen when surveying national sports teams and athletes — where it is clear that Islam is a culture, but not necessarily one denoted by ethnicity, heritage, or national identity. Muslim athletes compete for many non-Muslim countries and yet in the widest sphere outside of sports, there remain many studies, which assume the seamless interchange between ethnic, national, and religious classifications, as being sufficiently similar Wilson and Liu, In addition, it is likely that many Muslim consumption patterns may externally resemble other consumer groups, but intrinsically may paint a very different picture.

However, what changes is how they wear these items and where. Anecdotally, even shopping malls overlooking the Kaaba considered by Muslims to be the holiest place and centre of the universe in Mecca sell high street Western fashion and lingerie. Therefore, a key recommendation of the authors is that more work needs to be done to unveil and unpack consumption patterns, identities, possessions, and the extended-self — from emic and etic perspectives, linked to internationalization, globalization, and localization.

Without these, the development of Crescent IM will be hampered and skewed. Especially in the UK, halal foods and finance products have grown in popularity Wilson and Liu, Cases in practice are fast-food chains and banks 33 offering halal permissible commodities and practices according to Islam. The UK is also seen as being a hub for Islamic finance activities, which affect the Muslim world.

Furthermore, the fact that branded halal goods are so important now within Muslim majority countries as has never been seen before, despite always producing halal products, is an indicator that Muslim consumption practices globally have changed Wilson and Liu, In stark contrast, the French have been less receptive. Their interpretations have argued that rather than encouraging social cohesion and integration; more halal products sold on home soils pose a cultural threat.

A recent article reported that close to one-third of meat in France is in fact slaughtered according to compliance with Islamic law, but is only labelled as such if it is intended for Muslim consumption. The reasons given are that it is easier commercially to produce for any consumer, but not all consumers may wish to consume products branded in the same way. However, in the UAE and Malaysia this is for positive, inclusive, and pluralistic reasons Wilson and Liu, — as opposed to the mood of negative opposition expressed in France.

Perhaps slightly hypocritically, many European nations, Australia, and New Zealand are more comfortable exporting halal products to Muslim territories, so this appears to be a highly politicised phenomena, linked to fears of control and the rise of Islam in Europe and the West.

Some would argue that the fears are legitimate, as Islamic extremism has been linked with terrorism. However, we suggest that restricting the production and sale of things such as food is both draconian and makes poor business sense. Research points to products such as Islamic finance also being consumed by non-Muslims, for many reasons — ranging from, shared values within the Abrahamic faiths, assurances that funds will not be invested in gambling and pornography, through to foreign policy.

Or is it that they see Islam as not just being the property of Muslim nations? Therefore, is it that they are open to inspiration and truth wherever it exists? Evidence for the last perspective lies in the increase in visible practices of Islam by Muslim youth — most notably in their dress and the conversations on the internet, which are there for all to see.

And more importantly by inference it supports the idea that the strongest brands, media platforms, and educational systems lie outside of the hands and inception of the Muslim world, which profiles Muslims as being intellectually impoverished.

Therefore, if this is the case, Muslims may now and in the future be profiled as romantics who were once great, but now live in the shadow of the enlightened West. Gaining insight into stakeholder perceptions — concerning individual and group identities, are central components of any good marketing. Arguably, the youth market is tough: because how many brands can predict whether they will be the next cult, or cool thing — especially when tastes change so quickly?

Furthermore, if consideration is given to the fact that Muslim youth are balancing adherence to their faith which is taken from information largely based upon classical texts , with living in the here and now meaning that some texts have to be brought up to speed with the world today — then there are plenty of debates to be had.

Among the younger generation especially, patterns are being broken up by additional displays of conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption — the all-important accessorising and customising. However, an alternative view would be that jeans are technically comparable with, for example, female Pakistani shalwar trousers, or in fact are a step up — as they have more practical uses.

Furthermore, whether to wear jeans or not is not the key issue — it is how, when, and where. Comparably, non-Muslim youth are also adopting similar dress patterns. Non-Muslim females can be seen wearing jeans under skirts and pashmina scarves.

Also, Arab scarves in new vibrant colours have become an edgy urban chic accessory — in the same way that Che Guevara pictures appear on the walls and t-shirts of fashionable would-be revolutionaries. When examining music trends and tastes, Wilson c writes about the global cultural, ethnic, class, and marketing significance of the hip-hop phenomenon in general.

Literature exists which documents how political hip-hop has grown in popularity within Crescent the Muslim world, and in tandem there are reports of Islamic hip-hop culture influencing marketing religiosity in born Muslims and the decision of non-Muslims to convert to Islam Wilson, c.

Therefore, in light of these observations, we argue that more research into the link between Islam, Muslims, and hip-hop is an area also in need of further study, especially as JIMA has currently received no submissions in this area.

Muslim youth appear to be keen to assert their identity as a generation of informed, self-mediating, empowered, and technologically savvy urbanites. For them, heritage is progressive: they embrace the eradication of hierarchy and knowledge that simply translates to power. So perhaps it could be argued that there is a renaissance back to the early golden days — where Islam gifted social mobility and empowerment through structured innovation.

Anecdotally, there is a science fiction tabletop miniature wargame called Infinity, set years in the future. Within it there are nine factions: 1 PanOceania: derived from Western civilizations. Whilst this is only science fiction, we nevertheless found some of these classifications interesting. Faction Haqqislam Haq being Arabic for truth are cited as having evolved as a response to fundamentalism: Haqqislam bases its culture on an Islam which is humanist, philosophical and in continuous contact with nature.

Biosanitary Science and Earthformation are the two major strengths of Haqqislam, which includes the best schools of medicine and planetology in the Human Sphere Infinity the game, Our thinking is that academics should attempt more creative and futurist interpretations of the current phenomenon of IM, and ways to classify Muslim segments — in the JIMA interest of taking the subject forward.

For it is our strong belief that academics should 4,1 not only be documenting what is happening, but also setting the agenda. The significance of English Another key development has been the ascendance of English language. English in particular, because it is the worldwide language of business. In tandem, while Arabic is 36 the language of Islam and with Islam spreading across the globe, Arabic it is not the mother tongue of most Muslims, which means that it is often used alongside another mother tongue to derive meaning and understanding.

Therefore, today it could be argued that English has grown in its importance in connection with Islam, as it is more widely understood. However, a key question is what sort of English — as most people who speak English have it as a second non-native language. Also, non-English languages are in turn influencing English — as collectively they all express culturally specific patterns, which are embedded in contextual situations. Evidence points to the strongest global brands being known according to strong linkages with English language text and English derivatives, shaped by non-English language natives.

Language is especially central to youth culture in general — as it is subject to context, group and rapid fashionable change. What may be cool for some, or today, may not be the case in the future. Indonesia — the hidden treasure With over 17, islands, Indonesia is the most populous Muslim nation, with million inhabitants, of whom 88 per cent are Muslim approximately million.

Considering its size and potential, there remains paucity in literature and research on this region Fitriati, There are still a small number of products that have already been certified by the Majelis Ulama Indonesia MUI Council of Indonesian religious scholars. However, Indonesia is one of the first countries to have its own halal standards system.

Members of World Halal Food Council WHFC want to move toward an international standard, following strong Islamic concerns and observations that technological developments are impacting on perceptions of what is truly halal Wilson, a. When looking at financial products, some Indonesian Muslims are still reluctant to use Islamic banking, since they still cannot appreciate any functional benefits.

Moreover, only a small number of those users are actually loyal or have moved totally from conventional banks to Islamic banks. Most still use both conventional banks and Islamic banks simultaneously. They found that: 1 Indonesian Muslims are still thinking about functional benefits when considering Islamic banking products:.

The functional benefits they search for are profit sharing, which enables them to gain more financial profit, easy access, a variety of products, and good service. The emotional benefits they search for are mostly related to their anxieties of Crescent wanting to be more obedient to their religion, such as feeling more peace, marketing obeying Islamic law, achieving better afterlife prospects, and participating in a form of worship.

Islamic-banking loyalists — a segment of consumers who will stay loyal toward Islamic banking. Followers — a segment of consumers who will use Islamic banking when it has become mass product. Rationalists — a segment of customers who will choose a particular banking system based on the benefits they seek.

Docile consumers — a segment of consumers who use Islamic banking because they feel they are obliged to. Conventional-banking loyalists — a segment of consumers who will stay loyal toward conventional banking. Some people feel alienated, and even intimidated, coming to Islamic banks with too much of an Islamic atmosphere. The majority of Indonesian Muslims are not yet familiar with Islamic words and phrases. Along with their economic growth, Indonesian consumers across categories are becoming more demanding.

They are searching for more than just the Islamic aspects of a product — they also seek the functional and emotional benefits to add the value of the product. Consumers are becoming more invloved, leading to greater rational and emotional involvement with consumer decision making.

As a result, it is argued that passive peacefulness or big picture rhetoric offering a passage to a better afterlife will no longer be their main considerations in choosing products. Brand Islam cannot just be used as an ingredient, or unique selling point alone to cater to a captive audience.

Islamic commodities are demanded to innovate their products and services continously, and to be on par with conventional offerings if they want to stay competitive for Indonesian Muslims. What constitutes halal for Indonesian Muslims cannot only cover basic halal requirements, but should also cover hygiene factors and aspirational aspects.

Notably, assessment beyond functional compliance, is moving toward health and purity Wilson and Liu, This demand will drive the MUI to extend more halal certifications to small and medium sized enterprises and street vendors, JIMA and potentially add further criteria which examine aspects of purity, quality, and 4,1 health benefits. By , Coughlan reports findings from an Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development OECD study, projecting Indonesia as moving from sixth to fifth place in terms of number of university graduates, with the USA slipping 38 from second to third place.

Vaswani a, c, d and Mishskin also highlight how important social media is in the region, from urbanites to farmers: This is one of the most Twitter and Facebook-friendly nations on Earth. A higher proportion of Indonesian internet users sign on to Twitter than in any other country.

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Granada vs valencia betting expert football Islamic commodities are demanded to innovate their products and services continously, and to be on par with conventional offerings if they want to stay competitive for Indonesian Muslims. Superimposed upon these dangers, is evidence of low pay, lack of sick leave and affordable healthcare, together with high density and low quality housing for workers At scale, increases in ammonia-nitrogen appear to pose the most significant soil pollution hazard Unsurprisingly then, inhabitants are more likely to suffer more from asthma and other respiratory diseases President invoked the Defense Https://bookmakerfootball.website/athalassa-avenue-nicosia-betting/3088-when-will-our-next-presidential-election-betting.php Act ofand issued an Executive Order mandating processing plants to reopen.
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Deeper than the replay of a missed Baggio penalty. This is not the first time, though. David Winner's Brilliant Orange was a good companion of mine during my short stay in Holland, as I try to understand Dutch culture through its football tactics. Steve Bloomfield's Africa United attempted to explain the lives of people in many different African countries through football.

From the early times of organized matches in England to the Dynamo Kiew scientific approach and the end of the enganche era of players like Riquelme. I learned about the early formation, which led to the way shirt numberings became i. And how a formation with one less defender may end up being more defensive than a traditional back four i. The Italian catenaccio evolved during a period of lacking confidence, an Italian society that had lived through invasions after another.

As the Italian society dug deep, defended its nation, and waited for the best opportunity to pounce, these sentiments and feelings were transpired into its football tactics. Nor the reason that many African countries have strong midfielders capable of making vertical runs think Yaya Toure and Michael Essien is because football pitches in Africa are mostly long, narrow, clogged by players, and hugged on its sides by a sewer or garbage dump.

I also enjoyed the recurring themes framing football tactics over the years. As well, the debate between those who favor a system of tactics and those who highlight the individual brilliance of players. How to strike a balance between these extremes to come up with not only the best team, but most importantly, the best-looking team.

To some, this would be observed simply as a matter of the football pitch. But to me, this looks so much like our society. The contests between realists and idealists in international relations. The tensions between individual freedoms and communal responsibility, between democracy and authoritarian efficacy. Otherwise football dies. We invent new things, come up with new ideas. All for the purpose of survival.

Those who can, will proceed. The same is for football. More than a game, football should be seen as a form of art, and football players as artists. The managers, the people with the music sheet, are the music conductor, leading the entire ensemble on a musical journey. Of course, the music written is often colored immensely by the culture, experience, and lives of these musicians, particularly the conductor.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher, nor to be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published without a similar condition, including this condition, being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. This is a long list, but that should not diminish how vital a role each of the people included in it played.

Thanks also to Aliaksiy Zyl and his coterie of Dinamo fans in Minsk for their advice and thanks to Chris Fraser for introducing us. Dima: the polonium night at the Emirates will never be forgotten. Thanks to Gabriele Marcotti for all his assistance with the Italian sections, for being such an informed and robust sounding-board, but most particularly for allowing me finally to participate in one of those restaurant debates in which bowls of hummus, tabouleh and tzatziki become the Udinese defence.

Thanks also to Brian Glanville for his unfailing generosity of spirit and for putting me right on a number of historical matters. Thanks to my agent, David Luxton, and my editor at Orion, Ian Preece, for their unflagging support and helpful interventions, and to the copy-editor, Chris Hawkes, for his diligence. Had player-power, a late-night delegation of midfielders, forced the unexpected reversion to the flat four in midfield?

Football is not about players, or at least not just about players; it is about shape and about space, about the intelligent deployment of players, and their movement within that deployment. The Argentinian was, I hope, exaggerating for effect, for heart, soul, effort, desire, strength, power, speed, passion and skill all play their parts, but, for all that, there is also a theoretical dimension, and, as in other disciplines, the English have, on the whole, proved themselves unwilling to grapple with the abstract.

That is a failing, and it is something that frustrates me, but this is not a polemic about the failure of English football. Look at Uruguay, look at Austria: that is decline. Look at Scotland, still punching heroically above their weight despite the restrictions imposed by a population of only five million. Look, most of all, at Hungary, the team who, in November , rang the death knell for English dreams of superiority. That is decline.

Nonetheless, for English football, the defeat to Hungary at Wembley stands as the watershed. It is a story of shamefully wasted talent, extraordinary complacency and infinite selfdeception. And yet, thirteen years later, England became world champions. The vast superiority may have been squandered, but England were evidently still among the elite. Yes, perhaps we do have a tendency to get carried away before major tournaments, which makes a quarter-final exit sting rather more than it probably ought, but England remain one of the eight or ten sides who have a realistic chance of winning a World Cup or European Championship freakish champions like Denmark or Greece notwithstanding.

The question then is why that opportunity has not been taken. Luck retains its place in football, and success can never be guaranteed, particularly not over the six- or seven-game span of an international tournament. A theory has grown up that winning the World Cup in was the worst thing that could have happened to English football. If England in had tried to play like Brazilians, they would have ended up like Brazil: kicked out of the tournament in the group stage by physically more aggressive opponents in fact they would have been worse off, for they had few, if any, players with the technical attributes of the Brazilians.

If there is one thing that distinguishes the coaches who have had success over a prolonged period - Sir Alex Ferguson, Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Bill Shankly, Boris Arkadiev - it is that they have always been able to evolve. Their teams played the game in very different ways, but what they all shared was the clarity of vision to successfully recognise when the time was right to abandon a winning formula and the courage to implement a new one.

I am well aware, equally, that compromises have to be made between theory and practice. Yet on the pitch, when at university I had for two years the chance to influence the style of my college side well, the seconds and thirds at least , we played highly functional football.

It is hard to think of any significant actions that are not in some way a negotiation between the two extremes of pragmatism and idealism. The difficulty, then, is in isolating of what that extra quality comprises. Glory is not measured in absolutes, and what constitutes it changes with circumstance and time. To the modern sensibility, it is baffling that the early amateur footballers thought passing unmanly, and yet it may be in time to come - as indeed it already is in certain cultures - that the present-day British distaste for diving seems just as naively irrelevant.

Even acknowledging that football is about more than simply winning, though, it would be ludicrous to deny the importance of victory. Wenger can be frustratingly quixotic at times but, as his negative tactics in the FA Cup final showed, even he at times acknowledges the need to win. To condemn Ramsey, when he brought the only international success England has known is a luxury English fans cannot afford; to accuse him of ruining English football rather than saluting his tactical acuity seems wilfully perverse.

It is rare that there is one outstanding side in the world, rarer still that they actually win the World Cup. The example of Brazil in , casually brushing aside the opposition, is almost unique, and even then, particularly given their lethargic qualifying campaign, it seemed almost supremacy by default as the other contenders, weakened by various combinations of injury, fatigue and ill-discipline, capitulated in the heat.

France probably were the best side in the tournament, but they only really showed that in the final. Two years later, they were significantly the best side at Euro , and yet were within a minute of losing the final to Italy. In fact, two of the greatest sides of all time, the Hungarians of and the Dutch of , lost in the final - both to West Germany, which may or may not be coincidence.

Against the Republic of Ireland and Egypt, England were dire, and against Belgium and Cameroon they were lucky; only against Holland and West Germany, neither of which games they won, did they play well. In fact, the only team England beat in ninety minutes was Egypt.

Over the course of a league season, luck, momentum, injuries, errors by players and errors by referees even themselves out - if not absolutely, then certainly far, far more than they do over seven games in a summer. That England have gone over forty years without winning a trophy is annoying, and for that various managers, players, officials and opponents bear a degree of responsibility, but it does not equate to a fundamental decline.

Globalisation is blurring national styles, but tradition, perpetuated by coaches, players, pundits and fans, is strong enough that they remain distinguishable. What became apparent in the writing of this book is that every nation came fairly quickly to recognise its strengths, and that no nation seems quite to trust them. Brazilian football is all about flair and improvisation, but it looks yearningly at the defensive organisation of the Italians. Italian football is about cynicism and tactical intelligence, but it admires and fears the physical courage of the English.

English football is about tenacity and energy, but it feels it ought to ape the technique of the Brazilians. The history of tactics, it seems, is the history of two interlinked tensions: aesthetics versus results on the one side and technique versus physique on the other. What confuses the issue is that those who grow up in a technical culture tend to see a more robust approach as a way of getting results, while those from a physical culture see pragmatism in technique; and beauty - or at least what fans prefer to watch - remains very much in the eye of the beholder.

British fans may admire although most seemed not to the cerebral jousting of, say, the Champions League final between AC Milan and Juventus, but what they actually want to see is the crash-bang-wallop of the Premiership. That is not entirely fair, for Premiership football is far more skilful now than it was even ten years ago, but it remains quicker and less possession-driven than any other major league.

As staunchly Anglophile as only an immigrant can be, his work is more of a lament. For them, blaming the unapologetic conservatism of the English game made sense and, with the benefit of hindsight, it can be seen as part of a more general cultural attack on an establishment that had overseen the end of Empire but was yet to find an appropriate role.

Yes, the rest of the world would have caught up at some stage, for, as Glanville wearily notes, pupils have a habit of overcoming their masters, but these masters, through their arrogance and insularity, were complicit in their own downfall.

That, though, was then. In that, by tracing the tactical evolution of the game, it attempts to explain how we got to where we are now, this book belongs to the same family as Soccer Nemesis and Soccer Revolution, but it sets out from a very different present, with England failing to rise rather than falling.

It is, anyway, a history, not a polemic. Hopefully all other terms to designate positions are self-explanatory. Chapter One From Genesis to the Pyramid In the beginning there was chaos, and football was without form.

Then came the Victorians, who codified it, and after them the theorists, who analysed it. In its earliest form, though, football knew nothing of such sophistication. Various cultures can point to games that involved kicking a ball, but, for all the claims of Rome, Greece, Egypt, the Caribbean, Mexico, China or Japan to be the home of football, the modern sport has its roots in the mob game of medieval Britain.

Rules - in as much as they existed at all - varied from place to place, but the game essentially involved two teams each trying to force a roughly spherical object to a target at opposite ends of a notional pitch. It was violent, unruly and anarchic, and it was repeatedly outlawed. Only in the early nineteenth century, when the public schools, their thinking shaped by advocates of muscular Christianity, decided that sport could be harnessed for the moral edification of their pupils, did anything approaching what we would today recognise as football emerge.

Before there could be tactics, though, there had, first of all, to be a coherent set of rules. Even by the end of the nineteenth century, when the earliest formations began to emerge, it was rare to subject them to too much thought. The boom came in the early Victorian era and, as David Winner demonstrates in Those Feet, was rooted in the idea - bizarre as it may seem in hindsight - that the Empire was in decline and that moral turpitude was somehow to blame.

Team sports, it was thought, were to be promoted, because they discouraged solipsism, and solipsism allowed masturbation to flourish, and there could be nothing more debilitating than that. Football was seen as the perfect antidote, because, as E. It is so peculiarly and typically British, demanding pluck, coolness and endurance. Football soared in popularity throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, but in those early days rules varied from school to school, largely according to conditions.

At Cheltenham and Rugby, for instance, with their wide, open fields, the game differed little from the mob game. A player could fall on the ground, be fallen upon by a great many of his fellows and emerge from the mud relatively unscathed. On the cloisters of Charterhouse and Westminster, though, such rough-and-tumble would have led to broken bones, and so it was there that the dribbling game developed.

That outlawed - or at least restricted - handling of the ball, but the game still differed radically from modern football.

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