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In her memoir My Life as a Year-Old Boy, Cartwright wrote: "with the brilliant wit of the writers and the wry, in-your-eye, honest-to-a-fault interpretation, Yeardley Smith has made Lisa a bright light of leadership, full of compassion and competence beyond her years.
Lisa Simpson is the kind of child we not only want our children to be but also the kind of child we want all children to be. But, at the time, on The Tracey Ullman Show, she was just an animated eight-year-old kid who had no personality.
In some earlier episodes she provided some of Maggie's squeaks and occasional speaking parts, and has voiced other characters on very rare occasions. She said, "it's wonderful to be in the midst of all this hype about the show, and people enjoying the show so much, and to be totally a fly on the wall; people never recognize me solely from my voice.
I have nothing but gratitude for the amount of freedom The Simpsons has bought me in my life. Still, Smith considers her work on the show a success. Some lines are written for Lisa that Yeardley reads and says, 'No, I wouldn't say that. A pay dispute erupted in , during which Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices.
As the series progressed, Lisa began to develop into a more intelligent and more emotional character. She demonstrates her intellect in the episode "Krusty Gets Busted" season one , by helping Bart reveal Sideshow Bob's plot to frame Krusty the Clown for armed robbery. Many episodes focusing on Lisa have an emotional nature, such as "Moaning Lisa" season one, The idea for the episode was pitched by James L. Brooks, who wanted to do an emotional episode involving Lisa's sadness, to complement the many "jokey episodes" in the first season.
In the seventh-season episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" , Lisa permanently becomes a vegetarian, distinguishing her as one of the first primetime television characters to make such a choice. The episode was written by David S. Cohen in his first solo writing credit , who jotted down the idea one day while eating lunch.
Then-executive producer David Mirkin, who had recently become a vegetarian himself, quickly approved the idea. Several of Lisa's experiences in the episode are based on Mirkin's own experiences. The episode guest stars musician Paul McCartney, a committed vegetarian and animal rights activist. McCartney's condition for appearing was that Lisa would remain a vegetarian for the rest of the series and would not revert the next week as is common on situation comedies.
The trait stayed and is one of the few permanent character changes made in the show. In the season 13 episode "She of Little Faith" , Lisa underwent another permanent character change when she converted to Buddhism. Lisa plays the baritone saxophone, and some episodes use that as a plot device. According to Matt Groening, the baritone saxophone was chosen because he found the thought of an eight-year-old girl playing it amusing. He added, "But she doesn't always play a baritone sax because the animators don't know what it looks like, so it changes shape and color from show to show.
The Simpsons composer Alf Clausen said that the session musicians who perform her solos do not try to play at the second-grade level and instead "think of Lisa as a really good player. She shows characteristics rarely seen in Springfield, including spirituality and commitment to peaceful ways, and is notably more concerned with world affairs than her life in Springfield, with her rebellion against social norms being depicted as constructive and heroic, yet she can be self-righteous at times.
In "Lisa the Vegetarian", an increasing sense of moral righteousness leads her to disrupt her father's roast-pig barbecue, an act for which she later apologizes. Like most children her age, she thinks in images rather than words. Episodes often take shots at Lisa's idealism. In "Bart Star" season nine, , Lisa, who is departing from her typically more genuine nature and apparently looking for a new cause to crusade over, defiantly declares that she, a girl, would like to join the football team.
In the s, it was considered odd to allow a girl to play football. However, when coach Ned Flanders reveals that several girls already play for the team, she hesitates and claims football is "not really [her] thing".
She then expresses distaste about a ball made of pig's skin, but one of the girls informs her that their footballs are synthetic and that proceeds are donated to Amnesty International. Upset by being unable to gain moral superiority, Lisa runs off. Burns to rebuild the church, which burned after being hit with Bart and Homer's rockets, with commercialism.
Despite no longer following the Christian faith, she still is seen attending church in later episodes. When unable to attend school due to a teachers' strike in "The PTA Disbands", season six, she suffers withdrawal symptoms because of the sudden lack of praise.
She even demands that her mother grade her for no obvious reason. In Planet Simpson, Chris Turner writes that these traits make Lisa more realistic because "No character can aspire to realism without a few all-too-human flaws.
One episode to show this is "See Homer Run" season seventeen, where she goes through a developmental condition which causes her to get into trouble at school. In "Lost Our Lisa" season nine, , she tricks Homer into allowing her to ride the bus alone, only to become hopelessly lost and in need of aid from her father. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that incidents like this illustrate that "Even when Lisa's lecturing like a college professor or mounting yet another protest, she never becomes a full-grown adult trapped in a child's body.
Lisa is portrayed as the avatar of logic and wisdom, but then she also worships Corey so she's 'no better [than the rest of us]'. She is stopped by Bart who encourages her to keep proving people wrong and pursue her dreams as a musician. Lisa occasionally worries that her family's dull habits will rub off on her, such as in "Lisa the Simpson" season nine, she worries that the "Simpson gene" will make her a dimwit later finding out the gene only goes through the male side.
She is often embarrassed and disapproving of her eccentric family: of her father's poor parenting skills and buffoonish personality; her mother's stereotypical image and social ineptitude; and her brother's delinquent and low-brow nature. Despite this, she has good relationships with all of her immediate family members; despite their many differences, Homer and Lisa maintain an affectionate relationship, with episodes like "Lisa the Greek" and "Bart on the Road" depicting the bond between them often being cited as fan favorites.
She is also concerned that Maggie may grow up to be like the rest of the family and tries to teach her complex ideas. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that "Lisa embarks on quests to find solace for her yearning spirit It is from the other Simpsons that Lisa draws stability, meaning, contentment. In the episode "Mother Simpson" season seven, she meets her paternal grandmother Mona Simpson for the first time. Mona is also well-read and articulate, and the writers used the character as a way to explain the origins of Lisa's intelligence.
However, "Holidays of Future Passed" also show Lisa being in both a monogamous, and later polyamorous, lesbian relationships. However, all future episodes and scenes such as these are ultimately considered non-canon. Although Lisa's sexuality has never been confirmed on screen, showrunner Al Jean said in a interview with The Metro that he had always envisaged for Lisa to grow up to become bisexual and polyamorous.
Smith also asked fans to stop speculating on Lisa's sexuality, as she was "ultimately an eight-year old girl". On a less positive note, she was ranked third in AskMen's top 10 of the most irritating '90s cartoon characters. Lisa's environmentalism has been especially well received. She's the heart of the show and she quite often questions gender politics.
Meet her once and she comes off priggish and one-note — a know-it-all. Get to know her and Lisa is as well-rounded as anyone you may ever meet in the real world. In , environmentalist website The Daily Green honored Lisa's role in The Simpsons Movie with one of its inaugural "Heart of Green" awards, which "recognize those who have helped green go mainstream.
Lisa's well-intended but ill-fated struggles to be a voice of reason and a force of good in her family and community struck a chord with Japanese audiences. Mario D'Amato, a specialist in Buddhist studies at Rollins College in Florida, described Lisa as "open-minded, reflective, ethical, and interested in improving herself in various ways, while still preserving a childlike sense of innocence. These are all excellent qualities, ones which are espoused by many Buddhist traditions.
The dismissive term "meh"—used by Lisa and popularized by the show— entered the Collins English Dictionary in In , The New York Times published an article saying that Lisa was inspiring children, especially young girls, to learn to play the saxophone. The Lisa Book, describing Lisa's personality and attributes, was released in Other merchandise includes dolls, posters, figurines, bobblehead dolls, mugs, and clothing such as slippers, T-shirts, baseball caps, and boxer shorts.
Lisa has appeared in commercials for Burger King, C. On April 9, , the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five cent stamps featuring Lisa and the four other members of the nuclear Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, went on sale in May Lisa has also appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons.
She has appeared in each Simpsons video game, including The Simpsons Game, released in In addition to the television series, Lisa regularly appeared in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were published from until The comics focus on the sweeter, more naive incarnation from the early seasons.
My Life as a Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion Books. ISBN Groening, Matt Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia eds. New York: HarperPerennial. LCCN OCLC OL M. Ortved, John Greystone Books. Pinsky, Mark I Skoble, Aeon J. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! Chicago: Open Court.
Turner, Chris Foreword by Douglas Coupland. Toronto: Random House Canada. Wayne State University Press. Brown, Alan; Chris Logan The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. Groening, Matt; Bill Morrison The Lisa Book. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters.
He named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family.
With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and often provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household. She is often portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is often included on lists of top "TV moms". She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise.
Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the s. Julie Kavner, who was a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed.
In , Marge, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She was raised by her parents, Jacqueline and Clancy Bouvier. She has a pair of sisters, the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was" season two, , it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, and in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, and Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest.
She was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons as a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie when he started to pressure her to have sex after prom.
At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She then told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will hug her and kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, and she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line.
Bart was born soon after, and the couple bought their first house. The episode "That '90s Show" season 19, contradicted much of the established back-story; for example, it was revealed that Marge and Homer were childless in the early s although past episodes had suggested Bart and Lisa were born in the s. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story.
In "Homer's Paternity Coot" season 17, , Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months later, placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie" season 17, , Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and When he cannot remember, Marge yells that it is in May.
In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate October 1. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series. These include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job" season four, ; selling houses in "Realty Bites" season nine, ; owning her own pretzel business in "The Twisted World of Marge Simpson" season eight, , and working at an erotic bakery in "Sex, Pies and Idiot Scrapes" season 20, While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it.
In "The Springfield Connection" season six, , Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she became upset with the corruption in the force and quit. Groening had been called to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show, and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening decided to go in another direction and hurriedly sketched out his version of a dysfunctional family, naming the characters after members of his own family.
Marge was named after Groening's mother Margaret "Marge" Groening, who has said she bears little similarity to the character, stating, "It's really weird to have people think you're a cartoon. In , the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Network.
Marge and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show. Matt Groening believes that episodes featuring Marge are among the most difficult episodes to write. Bill Oakley believes that the "junior" writers are usually given Marge episodes because he and writing partner Josh Weinstein were given several to write during their first season. During the third season of the show, most of the writers focused on Bart and Homer, so David M.
Stern decided to write a Marge episode, which became "Homer Alone" season three, He felt that they could achieve a "deeper vein" of comedy in an episode where Marge has a nervous breakdown, and James L. Brooks quickly approved. To draw Marge, the animators generally start off with a sphere, similar to the way Lisa and Maggie are drawn.
The eyes are then drawn, with one roughly in the middle of the sphere, and the other to the front side of the head. Then, the nose and lip are drawn. Her hair is then drawn on top as a long tube coming out of the sphere. An original idea the animators had for when Marge walked through doorways was that her hair would be forced down as she walked through, then once clear of the door, it would spring back and forth.
This was never used. Groening's original plan for Marge's hair was that it would conceal large, Life in Hell-esque rabbit ears. The gag was intended to be revealed in the final episode of the series, but was scrapped early on due to inconsistencies, and also to the fact that rabbit ears would be too fictitious even for The Simpsons.
Kavner had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show. Voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask Kavner and fellow cast member Dan Castellaneta to voice Marge and Homer rather than hire more actors. Part of Kavner's contract says that she will never have to promote The Simpsons on video and she rarely performs Marge's voice in public because she believes it "destroys the illusion. People feel these are real people.
And I have nothing to do with my character's movement. During a pay dispute in , Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing to cast new voices. While she usually takes her family's problems with good humor, in "Homer Alone" season three, , her workload and resultant stress caused her to have a mental breakdown. After spending time at "Rancho Relaxo", during which her family barely coped with her absence, she returned refreshed and everyone promised to help out more often.
Marge often provides a grounding opinion for Homer and their marriage has often been shaky. Marge admits that she "put[s] up with a lot in [their] marriage," and has left Homer or thrown him out of the house on several occasions. One of the first such episodes to depict this is "Secrets of a Successful Marriage" season five, , where Homer starts teaching an education class on how to build a successful marriage.
He is at first unsuccessful, but gains the interest of the class when he starts giving away family secrets, many of which concern Marge. Upon finding this out, Marge is incensed and throws him out of the house. The next day, Homer is dirty and disheveled, and begs Marge to take him back, saying the one thing he can offer her that nobody else can is "complete and utter dependence.
Through it all, Marge has remained faithful to Homer, despite temptations to the contrary such as the one in "Life on the Fast Lane" season one, , where she resists the charming Frenchman Jacques and instead chooses to remain with Homer. Marge is more caring, understanding, and nurturing toward Bart than Homer, but she refers to him as "a handful" and is often embarrassed by his antics. In "Marge Be Not Proud" season seven, , she felt she was mothering Bart too much and started acting more distant towards him after he was caught shoplifting.
In the beginning of the episode, Bart protested her "over-mothering", but as she started acting more distant towards him, he felt guilty about it and made up with her. Marge has expressed understanding for her "special little guy" and has defended him on many occasions. She once said "I know Bart can be a handful, but I also know what he's like inside. He's got a spark. It's not a bad thing Of course, it makes him do bad things. Marge over-mothers Maggie, which causes her to become too clingy and dependent on Marge.
Marge maintains a good relationship with her mother Jacqueline and her sisters Patty and Selma, though they disapprove of Homer and are vocal about it. Marge has tolerated their criticism, but has occasionally lost patience with them, once referring to them as "ghouls. It was revealed in "Fear of Flying" season six, that Clancy told Marge that he was a pilot, but in reality, he was a flight attendant. Marge discovered this one day and developed aerophobia.
In "Jazzy and the Pussycats" season 18, , Homer casually mentions that they once attended his funeral. It was finally revealed that Clancy died of lung cancer in season 27 episode "Puffless". Marge is the only member of the family who encourages, and often forces, church attendance. In "Homer the Heretic" season four, , Homer starts skipping church and Marge tells him "don't make me choose between my man and my God, because you just can't win. Yet, in some episodes, Marge's stereotypical attitude seems to affect her relationship with her daughter, Lisa, who is a feminist.
In "Lisa the Skeptic" season nine, , an "angel skeleton" is discovered, much to the skepticism of Lisa. As Lisa rants about the people who believe it is an angel, Marge informs her that she also believes it is an angel. She tells Lisa, "There has to be more to life than just what we see, everyone needs something to believe in.
While Marge has learned to cope with her addiction, it has never completely disappeared and remains an underlying problem that is referenced occasionally on the show. Marge also has a bit of a drinking problem with wine, though not nearly as problematic as her husband Homer's drunkenness, it is still a prevalent topic in quite a few episodes. Politically, Marge generally aligns with the Democratic Party, having supported the candidacy of her state's progressive governor Mary Bailey, and voted for Jimmy Carter in both of his presidential elections.
She was also deeply affected by the death of Lyndon B. Johnson, to the point where she wanted him to be alive so badly that she kept seeing him everywhere she looked. Kavner's emotional performance in the movie got positive reviews and one critic said she "gave what must be the most heartfelt performance ever.
In , Marge and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at Hollywood Boulevard. Marge has been ranked highly in lists of the top television mothers of all time. She was ranked first on Entertainment Weekly's list in ; first on Fox News' list in ; eighth on CityNews' list in ; and was included in Time's list of the "10 Best Moms Ever". In a poll in the United Kingdom, Marge was named the "most respected mother" by respondents.
Still in , Marge was ranked third in a poll conducted by the Opinion Research Company. Religious writer Kenneth Briggs has written that "Marge is my candidate for sainthood She lives in the real world, she lives with crises, with flawed people. She forgives and she makes her own mistakes. She is a forgiving, loving person I'm glad you spoke your mind I foolishly didn't know you had one.
I am looking at a picture of you Evidently, you and your charming family — Lisa, Homer, Bart and Maggie — are camping out. It's a nice family scene. Clearly you are setting a good example for the rest of the country. Please forgive a loose tongue. Following complaints, 20th Century Fox sent a letter to the event organizers ordering that the episode not be shown due to copyright laws. On April 9, , the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five cent stamps featuring Marge and the four other members of the Simpson family.
They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while the show is still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, She has appeared in each of The Simpsons video games. Besides the television series, Marge regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were published from Marge appeared in a advertisement for Dove Styling, where her normal beehive hair was exchanged for a more stylish look for a series of ads featuring several popular cartoon women.
In April , Marge appeared on the cover of Maxim. She also appeared on the cover of the November issue of Playboy, becoming the first cartoon character to appear on the cover. The cover and a three-page picture spread, as well as a story inside entitled The Devil in Marge Simpson, commemorated the 20th anniversary of The Simpsons, but as also part of a plan to appeal to younger readers, a decision which has been criticized due to a page in which the character is depicted nude.
Darine Stern's picture on the October cover served as the inspiration for Playboy's November cover. The family was initially conceived by Groening for a series of animated shorts, which originally aired as a part of The Tracey Ullman Show between and The shorts were developed into a half-hour prime time series which began in December The series' 33rd season debuted on September 26, , and episodes of The Simpsons have aired.
A feature film adaptation of the series called The Simpsons Movie, was released in Guest voices have come from a wide range of professions, including actors, athletes, authors, musicians, artists, politicians and scientists. In the show's early years most guest stars voiced original characters, but as the show has continued the number of those appearing as themselves has increased.
The first credited guest star was Marcia Wallace who appeared in "Bart the Genius" in her first stint as Bart's teacher Edna Krabappel. Singer Tony Bennett was the first guest star to appear as himself, appearing briefly in the season two episode "Dancin' Homer". Several guest stars have featured as recurring characters on the show, including Phil Hartman, Joe Mantegna and Kelsey Grammer.
After Wallace, Hartman made the most appearances, guest starring 52 times. Three guest stars, Ricky Gervais, Seth Rogen and Pete Holmes, earned writing credits for the episodes in which they appeared. As of October 17, , there have been guest stars on the show[A], with this figure rising to if The Simpsons Movie is included.
Kevin Michael Richardson started as a recurring guest star in the twenty first season, but joined the supporting cast in the twenty eighth, starting with the episode "The Last Traction Hero". In the earlier seasons, most of the guest stars voiced characters, but eventually more started appearing as themselves. Singer Tony Bennett was the first guest star to appear as himself, appearing in the season two episode "Dancin' Homer" while Aerosmith were the first band with their cameo in the third season's "Flaming Moe's" Several guest stars have made multiple appearances on the show, often as recurring characters.
Actress Marcia Wallace guest starred times, making her the most recurring female guest star on the show, until her death in Edna Krabappel was then retired from the show, but sometimes appears as a ghost, and actor Phil Hartman guest-starred in 52 episodes, more than any other male actor, although his initial role in the second season episode "Bart Gets Hit By a Car" in was intended to be a one-off.
He voiced the recurring characters Troy McClure and Lionel Hutz as well as numerous other one-time characters, until his death in McClure and Hutz were subsequently retired from the show. The two have appeared in 21 and 28 episodes respectively; Mantegna also appeared in the film. Both roles were originally written for other actors: Bob was originally to be voiced by James Earl Jones, who later guest starred three times on the show, while Fat Tony was written for Sheldon Leonard.
According to Groening, guest star choices "come from the writers saying, 'Wouldn't it be cool to have [such a person on the show]? In , Jean stated that fewer people would be appearing as themselves, as the staff did not want it to become a "crazy roster". Many guest stars come into the show's recording studio to record their parts, although some are recorded over the telephone.
Three guest stars have been credited with writing the episode in which they guest starred. Two guest stars were credited with pseudonyms. After the latter episode, the producers decided that if a celebrity wished to guest star on the show, they had to be willing to be credited under their real name. Numerous people have rejected the chance to appear on the show. Actor William Shatner has been described as the first person to reject the show.
The producers have consistently failed to persuade any former President of the United States to appear. Musicians Bruce Springsteen and Bob Dylan have also rejected multiple invitations to guest star on the series. Musician Prince turned down a role in a sequel to "Stark Raving Dad", which meant the script was never produced.
Others have accepted the offer, but have been unable to record a role. Musician Frank Zappa and actor Anthony Perkins both became too ill to record their parts, while Jim Carrey had to drop out due to time constraints, and Faye Dunaway cancelled. Christopher Walken originally agreed appear as himself in "Insane Clown Poppy".
However, he then decided to demand a lot more money than the producers were willing to pay. Instead, Jay Mohr provided the voice of Walken. This is the first time this has ever been done. Robby Krieger of The Doors recorded a cameo for the episode "The Great Money Caper", but his part was cut because the writers felt his appearance seemed too forced.
The scene was later included on the season's DVD release. Similarly, actress Catherine O'Hara recorded the voice of Colette the waitress in "Flaming Moe's", but was redubbed with Jo Ann Harris who the producers felt was a better fit. Ron Howard, in what would have been his third appearance on The Simpsons, was advertised as guest starring on "Children of a Lesser Clod". However, he did not appear for any recording sessions. Similarly, Werner Herzog was advertized as guest starring in "Thanksgiving of Horror", in what would have been his third appearance as Walter Hotenhoffer, but didn't appear in the final episode.
As of October 17, , there have been guest stars on the show, totaling guest spots. In the No. The second number refers to the episode number within its season: i. The production code refers to the code assigned to the episode by the production team. The first two characters refer to the season the episode was made for. The first season is 7Gxx, the second is 7Fxx, the third is 8Fxx and the fourth is 9Fxx. After that, the fifth season started with 1F and continued in order until season nine which was 5F.
Starting with season ten, the production codes started with AABF, with the first letter changing for each season i. The number at the end of the code is the order in which that episode was produced during that production run. In most cases these appearances have been uncredited and are usually not considered as proper guest stars given the circumstances. This however is subject to change as sometimes in the past announced guest stars have had their appearances cut for time, been removed or replaced, or for some other reason have not appeared in the final episode.
Additionally, the staff have written a part in mind for Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson. According to Al Jean there is the introduction of a character who was born deaf played "by an actor who is appropriate" in an upcoming episode. From music videos, to video games, commercials and theme park rides, the following guest stars have appeared in various Simpsons-related media.
Retrieved March 26, Season 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 Bates, James W. Harper Collins Publishers. Goertz is known for her satirical songs based on various pop culture topics. Her videos were originally posted on YouTube under the name of "Cossbysweater", which has been changed to simply "Allie Goertz. The album was made possible through Kickstarter. Her style has been compared to that of Bo Burnham.
In , Goertz became an editor at Mad magazine, leaving in June , midway through production of issue 9. Homer was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters.
He named the character after his father, Homer Groening. After appearing for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, the Simpson family got their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, The show was later acquired by Disney in As patriarch of the eponymous family, Homer and his wife Marge have three children: Bart, Lisa and Maggie.
As the family's provider, he works at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant as safety inspector. Homer embodies many American working class stereotypes: he is obese, immature, outspoken, aggressive, balding, lazy, ignorant, unprofessional, and addicted to beer, junk food and watching television. However, he is fundamentally a good man and is staunchly protective of his family, especially when they need him the most. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences, including going to space, climbing the tallest mountain in Springfield by himself, fighting former President George H.
Bush and winning a Grammy Award as a member of a barbershop quartet. In the shorts and earlier episodes, Castellaneta voiced Homer with a loose impression of Walter Matthau; however, during the second and third seasons of the half-hour show, Homer's voice evolved to become more robust, to allow the expression of a fuller range of emotions. He has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise.
His signature catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh! Homer is one of the most influential characters in the history of television, and is widely considered to be an American cultural icon. The British newspaper The Sunday Times described him as "The greatest comic creation of [modern] time". He was named the greatest character "of the last 20 years" in by Entertainment Weekly, was ranked the second-greatest cartoon character by TV Guide, behind Bugs Bunny, and was voted the greatest television character of all time by Channel 4 viewers.
In , Homer and his family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He is the son of Mona and Abraham "Grampa" Simpson. Homer held over different jobs in the first episodes of The Simpsons. In most episodes, he works as the nuclear safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in Sector 7-G , a position which he has held since "Homer's Odyssey", the third episode of the series, despite the fact that he is totally unsuitable for it.
At the nuclear plant, Homer is often ignored and completely forgotten by his boss Mr. Burns, and he constantly falls asleep and neglects his duties. Matt Groening has stated that he decided to have Homer work at the power plant because of the potential for Homer to wreak severe havoc.
Each of his other jobs has lasted only one episode. In the first half of the series, the writers developed an explanation about how he got fired from the plant and was then rehired in every episode. In later episodes, he often began a new job on impulse, without any mention of his regular employment. The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters never physically age, and, as such, the show is generally assumed to be always set in the current year.
Nevertheless, in several episodes, events in Homer's life have been linked to specific time periods. However, the episode "That '90s Show" season 19, contradicted much of this backstory, portraying Homer and Marge as a twentysomething childless couple in the early s.
Due to the floating timeline, Homer's age has changed occasionally as the series developed; he was 34 in the early episodes, 36 in season four, 38 and 39 in season eight, and 40 in the eighteenth season, although even in those seasons his age is inconsistent. In the fourth season episode "Duffless", Homer's drivers license shows his birthdate of being May 12, , which would have made him 36 years old at the time of the episode.
During Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein's period as showrunners, they found that as they aged, Homer seemed to become older too, so they increased his age to His height is 6' 1. Very little else of Homer's character was based on him, and to prove that the meaning behind Homer's name was not significant, Groening later named his own son Homer.
According to Groening, "Homer originated with my goal to both amuse my real father, and just annoy him a little bit. My father was an athletic, creative, intelligent filmmaker and writer, and the only thing he had in common with Homer was a love of donuts.
Homer's middle initial "J", which stands for "Jay", is a "tribute" to animated characters such as Bullwinkle J. Moose and Rocket J. In , the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Homer and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show. He is overweight and bald, except for a fringe of hair around the back and sides of his head and two curling hairs on top, and his face always sports a growth of beard stubble that instantly regrows whenever he shaves.
The entire Simpson family was designed so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. By coincidence or not, Homer's look bears a resemblance to the cartoon character Adamsson, created by Swedish cartoonist Oscar Jacobsson in Homer's physical features are generally not used in other characters; for example, in the later seasons, no characters other than Homer, Grampa Simpson, Lenny Leonard, and Krusty the Clown have a similar beard line.
When Groening originally designed Homer, he put his initials into the character's hairline and ear: the hairline resembled an 'M', and the right ear resembled a 'G'. Groening decided that this would be too distracting and redesigned the ear to look normal. However, he still draws the ear as a 'G' when he draws pictures of Homer for fans. The basic shape of Homer's head is described by director Mark Kirkland as a tube-shaped coffee can with a salad bowl on top.
During the shorts, the animators experimented with the way Homer would move his mouth when talking. At one point, his mouth would stretch out back "beyond his beardline"; but this was dropped when it got "out of control.
Homer's hair evolved to be consistently pointed. During the first three seasons, Homer's design for some close-up shots included small lines which were meant to be eyebrows. Groening strongly disliked them and they were eventually dropped. In the season seven episode "Treehouse of Horror VI", Homer was computer animated into a three-dimensional character for the first time for the "Homer3" segment of the episode.
The computer animation directors at Pacific Data Images worked hard not to "reinvent the character". In the final minute of the segment, the 3D Homer ends up in a real world, live-action Los Angeles. The scene was directed by David Mirkin and was the first time a Simpsons character had been in the real world in the series. Because "Lisa's Wedding" season six, is set fifteen years in the future, Homer's design was altered to make him older in the episode.
He is heavier; one of the hairs on top of his head was removed; and an extra line was placed under the eye. A similar design has been used in subsequent flashforwards. Castellaneta had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show and had previously done some voice-over work in Chicago alongside his wife Deb Lacusta.
Voices were needed for the Simpsons shorts, so the producers decided to ask Castellaneta and fellow cast member Julie Kavner to voice Homer and Marge rather than hire more actors. In the shorts and first season of the half-hour show, Homer's voice is different from the majority of the series. The voice began as a loose impression of Walter Matthau, but Castellaneta could not "get enough power behind that voice", or sustain his Matthau impression for the nine- to ten-hour-long recording sessions, and had to find something easier.
During the second and third seasons of the half-hour show, Castellaneta "dropped the voice down" and developed it as more versatile and humorous, allowing Homer a fuller range of emotions. Castellaneta's normal speaking voice does not bear any resemblance to Homer's.
To perform Homer's voice, Castellaneta lowers his chin to his chest and is said to "let his I. Castellaneta likes to stay in character during recording sessions, and he tries to visualize a scene so that he can give the proper voice to it.
Despite Homer's fame, Castellaneta claims he is rarely recognized in public, "except, maybe, by a die-hard fan". The episode features Homer forming a barbershop quartet called The Be Sharps; and, at some points, his singing voice is provided by a member of The Dapper Dans. Their singing was intermixed with the normal voice actors' voices, often with a regular voice actor singing the melody and the Dapper Dans providing backup. During a pay dispute in , Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices.
In the early seasons of the show, Bart was the main focus. But, around the fourth season, Homer became more of the focus. According to Matt Groening, this was because "With Homer, there's just a wider range of jokes you can do. And there are far more drastic consequences to Homer's stupidity.
There's only so far you can go with a juvenile delinquent. We wanted Bart to do anything up to the point of him being tried in court as a dad. But Homer is a dad, and his boneheaded-ness is funnier. He was originally "very angry" and oppressive toward Bart, but these characteristics were toned down somewhat as his persona was further explored. In early seasons, Homer appeared concerned that his family was going to make him look bad; however, in later episodes he was less anxious about how he was perceived by others.
In the first several years, Homer was often portrayed as dumb yet well-meaning, but during Mike Scully's tenure as executive producer seasons nine, to twelve, , he became more of "a boorish, self-aggrandizing oaf". Episodes that once would have ended with Homer and Marge bicycling into the sunset At voice recording sessions, Castellaneta has rejected material written in the script that portrayed Homer as being too mean.
He believes that Homer is "boorish and unthinking, but he'd never be mean on purpose. The writers have depicted Homer with a declining intelligence over the years; they explain this was not done intentionally, but it was necessary to top previous jokes. For example, in "When You Dish Upon a Star", season 10, the writers included a scene where Homer admits that he cannot read.
The writers debated including this plot twist because it would contradict previous scenes in which Homer does read, but eventually they decided to keep the joke because they found it humorous. The writers often debate how far to go in portraying Homer's stupidity; one suggested rule is that "he can never forget his own name". He has a low intelligence level and is described by director David Silverman as "creatively brilliant in his stupidity".
Homer also shows immense apathy towards work, is overweight, and "is devoted to his stomach". His short attention span is evidenced by his impulsive decisions to engage in various hobbies and enterprises, only to "change Homer often spends his evenings drinking Duff Beer at Moe's Tavern, and was shown in the episode "Duffless" season four, as a full-blown alcoholic.
He is very envious of his neighbors, Ned Flanders and his family, and is easily enraged by Bart. Homer will often strangle Bart on impulse upon Bart angering him and can also be seen saying one of his catchphrases, "Why you little—!
The first instance of Homer strangling Bart was in the short "Family Portrait". According to Groening, the rule was that Homer could only strangle Bart impulsively, never with premeditation, because doing so "seems sadistic. If we keep it that he's ruled by his impulses, then he can easily switch impulses. So, even though he impulsively wants to strangle Bart, he also gives up fairly easily.
Homer shows no compunction about expressing his rage, and does not attempt to hide his actions from people outside the family. Homer has complex relationships with his family. As previously noted, he and Bart are the most at odds; but the two commonly share adventures and are sometimes allies, with some episodes particularly in later seasons showing that the pair have a strange respect for each other's cunning.
Homer and Lisa have opposite personalities and he usually overlooks Lisa's talents, but when made aware of his neglect, does everything he can to help her. The show also occasionally implies Homer forgets he has a third child, Maggie; while the episode "And Maggie Makes Three" suggests she is the chief reason Homer took and remains at his regular job season six, While Homer's thoughtless antics often upset his family, he on many occasions has also revealed himself to be a caring and loving father and husband: in "Lisa the Beauty Queen", season four, he sold his cherished ride on the Duff blimp and used the money to enter Lisa in a beauty pageant so she could feel better about herself; in "Rosebud", season five, he gave up his chance at wealth to allow Maggie to keep a cherished teddy bear; in "Radio Bart", season three, he spearheads an attempt to dig Bart out after he had fallen down a well; in "A Milhouse Divided", season eight, he arranges a surprise second wedding with Marge to make up for their unsatisfactory first ceremony; and despite a poor relationship with his father Abraham "Grampa" Simpson, whom he placed in a nursing home as soon as he could while the Simpson family often do their best to avoid unnecessary contact with Grampa, Homer has shown feelings of love for his father from time to time.
Homer is "a happy slave to his various appetites". He has an apparently vacuous mind, but occasionally exhibits a surprising depth of knowledge about various subjects, such as the composition of the Supreme Court of the United States, Inca mythology, bankruptcy law, and cell biology. Homer's brief periods of intelligence are overshadowed, however, by much longer and consistent periods of ignorance, forgetfulness, and stupidity. Homer has a low IQ of 55, which would actually make him unable to speak or perform basic tasks, and has variously been attributed to the hereditary "Simpson Gene" which eventually causes every male member of the family to become incredibly stupid , his alcohol problem, exposure to radioactive waste, repetitive cranial trauma, and a crayon lodged in the frontal lobe of his brain.
In the episode "HOMR", Homer has the crayon removed, boosting his IQ to ; although he bonds with Lisa, his newfound capacity for understanding and reason makes him unhappy, and he has the crayon reinserted.
Homer often debates with his own mind, expressed in voiceover. His mind has a tendency to offer dubious advice, which occasionally helps him make the right decision, but often fails spectacularly. His mind has even become completely frustrated and, through sound effects, walked out on Homer. These exchanges were often introduced because they filled time and were easy for the animators to work on.
They were phased out after the producers "used every possible permutation". Producer Mike Reiss said Homer was his favorite Simpsons character to write: "Homer's just a comedy writer's dream. He has everything wrong with him, every comedy trope. He's fat and bald and stupid and lazy and angry and an alcoholic. I'm pretty sure he embodies all seven deadly sins. One moment he's the saddest man in the world, because he's just lost his job, or dropped his sandwich, or accidentally killed his family.
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